You are here » CORE INFO » Reviews » Visceral Injuries » What are the features of visceral injuries occurring as a consequence of physical abuse? » Results


The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


  • Study designs:
  • 82 case series / studies 1-5,7,8-13,15-29,31-42,45-50,52,54-75,77-90
  • 6 cross-sectional studies 6,30,43,44,51,53
  • 2 uncontrolled retrospective cohort 14,76
  • Only seven comparative studies were conducted 6,24,30,45,51,76,87
  • Age: 0 – 16 years
  • Gender: Two studies analysed the results by gender and found no difference between the abused and non abused children 24, 76

Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

These aspects were not addressed by the included studies

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  24. Darling SE, Done SL, Friedman SD, Feldman KW. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures. Pediatric Radiology. 2014;44(10):1230-1236 [Pubmed]

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  32. Gipson CL, Tobias JD. Flail chest in a neonate resulting from nonaccidental trauma. Southern Medical Journal. 2006;99(5):536-538 [Pubmed]
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  39. Gunther WM, Symes SA, Berryman HE. Characteristics of child abuse by anteroposterior manual compression versus cardiopulmonary resuscitation: case reports. American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology. 2000;21(1):5-10 [Pubmed]
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  44. Hilmes MA, Hernanz-Schulman M, Greeley CS, Piercey LM., Yu C, Kan JH. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children. Pediatric Radiology. 2011;41(5):643-651 [Pubmed]
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  46. Karpas A, Yen K, Sell L., Frommelt PC. Severe blunt cardiac injury in an infant: A case of child abuse. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2002;52(4):759-764 [Pubmed citation only]
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