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Limitations of review findings

  • Only 7 / 90 included studies were comparative and none were case control, thus limiting definition of distinguishing features between abusive and accidental injury
  • Due to the large number of highly selected case studies / series, meta-analysis was not possible
  • Many large scale studies of blunt abdominal injury had to be excluded as it was not clear whether or not abuse had been considered as a possible aetiology, or where this was mentioned there was inadequate confirmation of abuse
  • Case studies / series afford considerable clinical detail of the included cases, however the generalisability of these findings is limited
  • Only 20 / 90 included studies were published in the last 10 years


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