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Included studies

What are the features of visceral injuries occurring as a consequence of physical abuse?


Included papers

  1. Ablin DS, Reinhart MA. Esophageal perforation with mediastinal abscess in child abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 1990;20(7):524-525 [Pubmed]
  2. Anchala K, Wright MS. Finding the hidden injury: Pediatric trauma puzzlers. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. 2001;2(1):71-75 [Citation provided by Science Direct]
  3. Anderst JD. Chylothorax and child abuse. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2007;8(4): 394-396 [Pubmed]
  4. Aoki Y, Nata M., Hashiyada M, Sagisaka K. Laceration of the liver with delayed massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage: a case report of child abuse. Japanese Journal of Legal Medicine. 1997;51(1):44-47 [Pubmed]
  5. Bansal BC, Abramo TJ. Subcutaneous emphysema as an uncommon presentation of child abuse. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 1997;15(6):573-575 [Pubmed]
  6. Barnes PM, Norton CM, Dunstan FD, Kemp AM, Yates DW, Sibert JR. Abdominal injury due to child abuse. Lancet. 2005;366(9481):234-235 [Pubmed]
  7. Beauchamp JM, Belanger MA, Neitzschman HR. The diagnosis of subcapsular hematoma of the liver by scintigraphy. Southern Medical Journal. 1976;69(12):1579-1581 [Pubmed]
  8. Beckmann KR, Nozicka CA. Small bowel perforation: an unusual presentation for child abuse. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2000;100(8):496-497 [Pubmed]
  9. Benhaim P, Strear C, Knudson M, Neal C, Coulter K, Villarreal S. Posttraumatic chylous ascites in a child: recognition and management of an unusual condition. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 1995;39(6):1175-1177 [Pubmed]
  10. Beshay VE, Beshay JE, Rosenberg AJ. Chylous ascites: A case of child abuse and an overview of a rare condition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2001;32(4):487-489 [Pubmed]
  11. Boysen, BE. Chylous ascites: Manifestation of the battered child syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1975;129(11):1338-1339 [Pubmed]
  12. Bratu M, Dower JC, Siegel B, Hosney SH. Jejunal hematoma, child abuse, and Felson's sign. Connecticut Medicine. 1970;34(4):261-264 [Pubmed]
  13. Cameron CM, Lazoritz S, Calhoun AD. Blunt abdominal injury: Simultaneously occurring liver and pancreatic injury in child abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1997;13(5):334-336 [Pubmed]
  14. Caniano DA, Beaver BL, Boles ET. Child abuse. An update on surgical management in 256 cases. Annals of Surgery. 1986;203(2):219-224 [Pubmed]
  15. Case ME, Nanduri R. Laceration of the stomach by blunt trauma in a child: a case of child abuse. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1983;28(2):496-501 [Pubmed]
  16. Chen MH, Lee CH, Wu CL, Su MC, Wu WH, Yeh WR. Sonographic presentation of chronic pancreatitis complicated with acute duodenal obstruction in a battered child. Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 1994;22(5):334-337 [Pubmed]
  17. Coant PN, Kornberg AE, Brody AS, Edwards-Holmes K. Markers for occult liver injury in cases of physical abuse in children. Pediatrics. 1992;89(2):274-278 [Pubmed]
  18. Cohle SD, Hawley DA, Berg KK, Kiesel E., Pless JE. Homicidal cardiac lacerations in children. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1995;40(2):212-218 [Pubmed]
  19. Conradi S, Brissie R. Battered child syndrome in a four year old with previous diagnosis of Reye's syndrome. Forensic Science International. 1986;30(2-3):195-203 [Pubmed]
  20. Cordner SM, Burke MP, Dodd MJ, Lynch MJ, Ranson DL, Robertson SD. Issues in child homicides: 11 cases. Legal Medicine. 2001;3(2):95-103 [Pubmed]
  21. Cumberland GD, Riddick L, McConnell CF. Intimal tears of the right atrium of the heart due to blunt force injuries to the abdomen: Its mechanism and implications. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1991;12(2):102-104 [Pubmed]
  22. Darling SE, Done SL, Friedman SD, Feldman KW. Frequency of intrathoracic injuries in children younger than 3 years with rib fractures. Pediatric Radiology. 2014;44(10):1230-1236 [Pubmed]

  23. deRoux SJ, Prendergast NC. Lacerations of the hepatoduodenal ligament, pancreas and duodenum in a child due to blunt impact. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1998;43(1):222-224 [Pubmed]
  24. deRoux SJ, Prendergast NC. Adrenal lacerations in child abuse: a marker of severe trauma. Pediatric Surgery International. 2000;16(1-2):121-123 [Pubmed]
  25. Dillard RP, Stewart AG. Total parenteral nutrition in the management of traumatic chylous ascites in infancy. Clinical Pediatrics. 1985;24(5):290-292 [Pubmed]
  26. Dobi-Babic R, Katalinic S. Infanticide - Consequence of long-term alcoholism. Alcoholism. 2008;44(1):43-48
  27. Dworkind M, McGowan G, Hyams J. Abdominal Trauma - Child Abuse. Pediatrics. 1990;85(5):892 [Pubmed citation only]
  28. Eisenstein EM, Delta BG, Clifford JH. Jejunal hematoma: an unusual manifestation of the battered-child syndrome. Clinical Pediatrics. 1965;4(8):436-440 [Pubmed citation only]
  29. Fain DB, McCormick GM. An unusual case of child abuse homicide/suicide. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1988;33(2):554-557 [Pubmed]
  30. Gaines BA, Shultz BS, Morrison K, Ford HR. Duodenal injuries in children: Beware of child abuse. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2004;39(4):600-602 [Pubmed]
  31. Geismar SL, Tilelli JA, Campbell JB, Chiaro JJ. Chylothorax as a manifestation of child abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1997;13(6):386-389 [Pubmed]
  32. Gipson CL, Tobias JD. Flail chest in a neonate resulting from nonaccidental trauma. Southern Medical Journal. 2006;99(5):536-538 [Pubmed]
  33. Glick RD, La Quaglia MP. Fungal sepsis in a patient with duodenal hematoma. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2000;35(4):627-629 [Pubmed]
  34. Gornall P, Ahmed S, Jolleys A, Cohen SJ. Intra-abdominal injuries in the battered baby syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1972;47(252):211-214 [Pubmed citation only]
  35. Grace A, Kalinkiewicz M, Drake-Lee AB. Covert manifestations of child abuse. British Medical Journal. 1984;289:1041-1042 [Pubmed citation only]
  36. Green HG. Child abuse presenting as chylothorax. Pediatrics. 1980;66(4):620-621 [Pubmed citation only]
  37. Grosfeld JL, Ballantine TVN. Surgical aspects of child abuse (trauma-X). Pediatric Annals. 1976;5(10):106-120 [Pubmed citation only]
  38. Guleserian KJ, Gilchrist BF, Luks FI, Wesselhoeft CW, DeLuca FG. Child abuse as a cause of traumatic chylothorax. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1996;31(12):1696-1697 [Pubmed]
  39. Gunther WM, Symes SA, Berryman HE. Characteristics of child abuse by anteroposterior manual compression versus cardiopulmonary resuscitation: case reports. American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology. 2000;21(1):5-10 [Pubmed]
  40. Gurland B, Dolgin SE, Shlasko E, Kim U. Pneumatosis intestinalis and portal vein gas after blunt abdominal trauma. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1998;33(8):1309-1311 [Pubmed]
  41. Halsted CC, Shapiro SR. Child abuse: acute renal failure from ruptured bladder. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1979;133(8):861-862 [Pubmed citation only]
  42. Hamilton A, Humphreys WG. Duodenal rupture complicating childhood non-accidental injury. Ulster Medical Journal. 1985;54(2):221-223 [Pubmed]
  43. Hicks RA, Gaughan DC. Understanding fatal child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect. 1995;19(7):855-863 [Pubmed]
  44. Hilmes MA, Hernanz-Schulman M, Greeley CS, Piercey LM., Yu C, Kan JH. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children. Pediatric Radiology. 2011;41(5):643-651 [Pubmed]
  45. Jacombs ASW, Wines M, Holland AJA, Ross FI, Shun A, Cass DT. Pancreatic trauma In children. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2004;39(1):96-99 [Pubmed]
  46. Karpas A, Yen K, Sell L., Frommelt PC. Severe blunt cardiac injury in an infant: A case of child abuse. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2002;52(4):759-764 [Pubmed citation only]
  47. Kelley JE. Duodenal hematoma: Case report. Military Medicine. 1982;147(2):106-108 [Pubmed citation only]
  48. Kleinman PK, Raptopoulos VD, Brill PW. Occult nonskeletal trauma in the battered-child syndrome. Radiology. 1981;141(2):393-396 [Pubmed citation only]
  49. Kleinman PK, Spevak MR, Hansen M. Mediastinal pseudocyst caused by pharyngeal perforation during child abuse. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1992;158(5):1111-1113 [Pubmed citation only]
  50. Lautz T, Leonhardt D, Rowell E, Reynolds M. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture as an isolated manifestation of nonaccidental trauma in a child. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2009;25(4):260-262 [Pubmed]
  51. Ledbetter DJ, Hatch Jr EI, Feldman KW, Fligner CL, Tapper D. Diagnostic and surgical implications of child abuse. Archives of Surgery. 1988;123(9):1101-1105 [Pubmed]
  52. Lieberman I, Chiasson D, Podichetty VK. Aortic disruption associated with L2-L3 fracture-dislocation in a case of child abuse: a case report. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 2010;92(7):1670-1674 [Pubmed citation only]
  53. Lindberg D, Makoroff K, Harper N, Laskey A, Bechtel K, Deye K, Shapiro R, for the ULTRA Investigators. Utility of hepatic transaminases to recognize abuse in children. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):509-516 [Pubmed]
  54. Marupaka SK, Unnithan DV. Esophageal perforation in an abandoned newborn. Pediatrics International. 2007;49(3):400-402 [Pubmed citation only]
  55. McCort J, Vaudagna J. Visceral injuries in battered children. Radiology. 1964; 82:424-428 [Pubmed citation only]
  56. McDowell HP, Fielding DW. Traumatic perforation of the hypopharynx - an unusual form of abuse. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1984;59(9):888-889 [Pubmed]
  57. McEniery J, Hanson R, Grigor, W, Horowitz A. Lung injury resulting from a nonaccidental crush injury to the chest. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1991;7(3):166-168 [Pubmed]
  58. Neuer FS, Roberts FF, McCarthy V. Osteolytic lesions following traumatic pancreatitis. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1977;131(7):738-740 [Pubmed]
  59. Ng CS, Hall CM. Costochondral junction fractures and intra-abdominal trauma in non-accidental injury (child abuse). Pediatric Radiology. 1998;28(9):671-676 [Pubmed]
  60. Ng CS, Hall CM, Shaw DG. The range of visceral manifestations of non-accidental injury. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1997;77(2):167-174 [Pubmed citation only]
  61. Nijs S, Vanclooster P, de Gheldere C, Garmijn K. Duodenal transection in a battered child: a case report. Acta Chirurgica Belgica. 1997;97(4):192-193 [Pubmed]
  62. Olazagasti JC, Fitzgerald JF, White SJ, Chong SKF. Chylous ascites: A sign of unsuspected child abuse. Pediatrics. 1994;94(5):737-739 [Pubmed citation only]
  63. Orel SG, Nussbaum AR, Sheth S, Yale-Loehr A, Sanders RC. Duodenal hematoma in child abuse: sonographic detection. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology. 1988;151(1):147-149 [Pubmed citation only]
  64. Pena SD, Medovy H. Child abuse and traumatic pseudocyst of the pancreas. Journal of Pediatrics.1973;83(6):1026-1028 [Pubmed citation only]
  65. Porzionato A, Macchi V, Aprile A, De Caro R. Cervical soft tissue lesions in the shaken infant syndrome: a case report. Medicine Science and the Law. 2008;48(4):346-349 [Pubmed]
  66. Reece RM, Arnold J, Splain J. Pharyngeal perforation as a manifestation of child abuse. Child Maltreatment. 1996;1(4):364-367 [Abstract provided by Sage Journals]
  67. Rees A, Symons J, Joseph M, Lincoln C. Ventricular septal defect in a battered child. British Medical Journal. 1975;1(5948):20-21 [Pubmed citation only]
  68. Roche KJ, Genieser NB, Berger DK, Ambrosino MM. Traumatic abdominal pseudoaneurysm secondary to child abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 1995;25(Suppl 1):S247-248 [Pubmed]
  69. Rosenberg HK. Traumatic avulsion of the vascular supply of a crossed unfused ectopic kidney: complementary roles of ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 1984;3(2):89-91 [Pubmed]
  70. Salmon MA. The spectrum of abuse in the battered-child syndrome. Injury. 1971;2(3):211-217 [Pubmed citation only]
  71. Sawyer RW, Hartenberg MA, Benator RM. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture in a battered child. International Journal of Pediatric Nephrology. 1987;8(4):227-230 [Pubmed]
  72. Simpson K. Battered babies: Conviction for murder. British Medical Journal. 1965;1(5431):393
  73. Sirotnak AP. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture: an uncommon manifestation of child abuse. Clinical Pediatrics. 1994;33(11):695-696 [Pubmed citation only]
  74. Slovis TL, Berdon, WE, Haller, JO, Baker, DH, Rosen, L. Pancreatitis and the battered child syndrome. Report of 2 cases with skeletal involvement. American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy & Nuclear Medicine. 1975;125(2):456-461 [Pubmed]
  75. Sola JE, Cateriano, JH, Thompson, WR, Neville, HL. Pediatric penetrating cardiac injury from abuse: a case report. Pediatric Surgery International. 2008;24(4):495-497 [Pubmed]
  76. Sowrey L, Lawson KA, Garcia-Filion P, Notrica D, Tuggle D, Eubanks III JW, Maxson RT, Recicar J, Megison SM, Garcia NM. Duodenal injuries in the very young: child abuse? The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2013;74(1):136-141. [Pubmed]

  77. Stewart DR, Byrd, CL, Schuster, SR. Intramural hematomas of the alimentary tract in children. Surgery. 1970;68(3):550-557 [Pubmed citation only]
  78. Stone RK, Harawitz, A, San Filippo, JA, Gromisch, DS. Needle perforation of the liver in an abused infant. Clinical Pediatrics. 1976;15(10):958-959 [Pubmed citation only]
  79. Sujka SK, Jewett, TC, Jr, Karp, MP. Acute scrotal swelling as the first evidence of intraabdominal trauma in a battered child. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1988;23(4):380 [Pubmed]
  80. Swadia ND, Thakore, AB, Patel, BR, Bhavani, SS. Unusual form of child abuse presenting as an acute abdomen. British Journal of Surgery. 1981;68(9):668 [Pubmed citation only]
  81. Tavill MA, Trimmer, WR, Austin, MB. Pediatric cervical esophageal perforation secondary to abusive blunt thoracic trauma. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 1996;35(3):263-269 [Pubmed]
  82. Terreros A, Zimmerman, S. Duodenal hematoma from a fall down the stairs. Journal of Trauma Nursing. 2009;16(3):166-168 [Pubmed]
  83. Tostevin PMJ, Hollis, LJ, Bailey, CM. Pharyngeal trauma in children - accidental and otherwise. The Journal of Laryngology and Otology. 1995;109(12):1168-1175 [Pubmed]
  84. Tracy T, Jr, O'Connor, TP, Weber, TR. Battered children with duodenal avulsion and transection. American Surgeon. 1993;59(6):342-345 [Pubmed]
  85. Vollman RW, Keenan, WJ, Eraklis, AJ. Post-traumatic chylous ascites in infancy. New England Journal of Medicine. 1966;275(16):875-877 [Pubmed citation only]
  86. Wilson TM, Anderson, BJ, Duncan, D. Nonaccidental injury presenting as pneumococcal sepsis in an infant. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1996;12(4):283-284 [Pubmed citation only]
  87. Wood J, Rubin, DM, Nance, ML, Christian, CW. Distinguishing inflicted versus accidental abdominal injuries in young children. The Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2005;59(5):1203-1208 [Pubmed]
  88. Wu JW, Chen, MY, Auringer, ST. Portal venous gas: an unusual finding in child abuse. The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2000;18(1):105-107 [Pubmed citation only]
  89. Yang JW, Kuppermann, N, Rosas, A. Child abuse presenting as pseudorenal failure with a history of a bicycle fall. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2002;18(2):91-92 [Pubmed citation only]
  90. Yavuz MS, Buyukyavuz, I, Savas, C, Ozguner, IF, Kupeli, A, Asirdizer, M. A battered child case with duodenal perforation. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2008;15(4):259-262 [Pubmed]

What is the role of non-radiological investigations in detecting abusive abdominal injury?


Included papers

  1. Coant PN, Kornberg AE, Brody AS, Edwards-Holmes K. Markers for occult liver injury in cases of physical abuse in children. Pediatrics. 1992;89(2):274-278 [Pubmed]
  2. Harper NS, Feldman KW, Sugar NF, Anderst JD, Lindberg DM; Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse Investigators. Additional injuries in young infants with concern for abuse and apparently isolated bruises. Journal of Pediatrics. 2014;165(2):383-388.e1. [Pubmed]

  3. Hilmes MA, Hernanz-Schulman M, Greeley CS, Piercey LM., Yu C, Kan JH. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children. Pediatric Radiology. 2011;41(5):643-651 [Pubmed]
  4. Lindberg D, Makoroff K, Harper N, Laskey A, Bechtel K, Deye K, Shapiro R, for the ULTRA Investigators. Utility of hepatic transaminases to recognize abuse in children. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):509-516 [Pubmed]
  5. Lindberg DM, Shapiro RA, Blood EA, Steiner RD, Berger RP. Utility of hepatic transaminases in children with concern for abuse. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2):268-275. [Pubmed]


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