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Results

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.

 

  • 32 articles addressed this question 1-32
  • Three different study populations had multiple publications recording different features as follows:
    • Bolger 1998 & Bolger 2001 1,2
    • Edwards 2005 & Shipman 2005 6,27
    • Finzi 2001, Finzi 2002, Finzi 2003 7,8,9
  • Correspondence with the authors confirmed there is some overlapping data within the following studies 15,16,19-21,26
  • These 32 articles all met our inclusion criteria and quality ranking of confirmation of neglect / emotional abuse

Study designs: 

  • 19 case-control 4-9,12,14,16,20-22,25,28-31
  • 5 case-control within a prospective cohort / longitudinal design 2,3,17,26,27
  • 3 prospective cohort / longitudinal 1,15,19
  • 1 retrospective cohort 18
  • 4 cross-sectional 10,11,13,23

Age: This review included children aged 5-14 but the majority of studies addressed children aged 7-11 years. It was not possible to break the results down by narrow age bands due to the way in which they were reported within the primary studies

 

Gender: One study explored the impact of gender on behavioural features of maltreated children and did not find it was a relevant mediator for those who were neglected 4

 

Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

Within the comparative papers, nine specified ethnicity 4,6,12,21,24,28-31. Of these, six were well matched 4,6,12,24,28,31

Socio-economic status was specified in 15 of the comparative papers 4-9,12,20-22,24,28-31. Of these, ten were well matched 4,5,12,20,22,24,28-31

 

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References

  1. Alink LR, Cicchetti D, Kim J, Rogosch FA. Longitudinal associations among child maltreatment, social functioning, and cortisol regulation. Developmental Psychology. 2012;48(1):224-36 [Pubmed]

  2. Bolger KE, Patterson CJ. Pathways from child maltreatment to internalizing problems: perceptions of control as mediators and moderators. Developmental Psychopathology. 2001;13(4):913-40 [Pubmed]

  3. Bolger KE, Patterson CJ, Kupersmidt JB. Peer relationships and self-esteem among children who have been maltreated. Child Development. 1998;69(4):1171-97 [Pubmed]

  4. Cullerton-Sen C, Cassidy AR, Murray-Close D, Cicchetti D, Crick NR, Rogosch FA. Childhood maltreatment and the development of relational and physical aggression: the importance of a gender-informed approach. Child Development. 2008;79(6):1736-51 [Pubmed]

  5. De Paúl J, Arruabarrena MI. Behavior problems in school-aged physically abused and neglected children in Spain. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1995;19(4):409-18 [Pubmed]

  6. Edwards A, Shipman K, Brown A. The socialization of emotional understanding: a comparison of neglectful and nonneglectful mothers and their children. Child Maltreatment. 2005;10(3):293-304 [Pubmed]

  7. Finzi R, Har-Even D, Shnit D, Weizman A. Psychosocial characterization of physically abused children from low socioeconomic households in comparison to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2002;11(4):441-453 [Abstract available from Springer Link]

  8. Finzi R, Har-Even D, Weizman A. Comparison of ego defenses among physically abused children, neglected, and non-maltreated children. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2003;44(5):388-95 [Pubmed]

  9. Finzi R, Ram A, Har-Even D, Shbit D, Weizman A. Attachment styles and aggression in physically abused and neglected children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2001;30,(6):769-786 [Abstract available from Springer Link]

  10. Fishbein D, Warner T, Krebs C, Trevarthen N, Flannery B, Hammond J. Differential relationships between personal and community stressors and children's neurocognitive functioning. Child Maltreatment. 2009;14(4):299-315 [Pubmed]

  11. Kantor GK, Holt MK, Mebert CJ, Straus MA, Drach KM, Ricci LR, MacAllum CA, Brown W. Development and preliminary psychometric properties of the multidimensional neglectful behavior scale-child report. Child Maltreatment. 2004;9(4):409-28 [Pubmed]

  12. Kaufman J, Cicchetti D. Effects of maltreatment on school-age children's socioemotional development: Assessments in a day-camp setting. Developmental Psychology. 1989;25(4):516-524 [Abstract available from APAPsychNET]

  13. Kaufman J, Jones B, Stieglitz E, Vitulano L, Mannarino AP. The use of multiple informants to assess children's maltreatment experiences. Journal of Family Violence. 1994;9(3):227-248 [Abstract available from Springer Link]

  14. Kendall-Tackett KA, Eckenrode J. The effects of neglect on academic achievement and disciplinary problems: a developmental perspective. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1996;20(3):161-9 [Pubmed]

  15. Kim J, Cicchetti D. Longitudinal trajectories of self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Development. 2006;77(3):624-39 [Pubmed]

  16. Kim J, Cicchetti D. Longitudinal pathways linking child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer relations, and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry. 2010;51(6):706-16 [Pubmed]

  17. Kinard EM. Perceived social skills and social competence in maltreated children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1999;69(4):465-81 [Pubmed]

  18. Kinard EM. Characteristics of maltreatment experience and academic functioning among maltreated children. Violence & Victims. 2001;16(3):323-37 [Pubmed]

  19. Lynch M, Cicchetti D. An ecological-transactional analysis of children and contexts: the longitudinal interplay among child maltreatment, community violence, and children's symptomatology. Development & Psychopathology. 1998;10(2):235-57 [Pubmed]

  20. Manly JT, Cicchetti D, Barnett D. The impact of subtype, frequency, chronicity, and severity of child maltreatment on social competence and behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology. 1994;6(1):121-143 [Abstract available from Cambridge Journals Online]

  21. Manly JT, Kim JE, Rogosch FA, Cicchetti D. Dimensions of child maltreatment and children's adjustment: contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Development & Psychopathology. 2001;13(4):759-82 [Pubmed]

  22. Nolin P, Ethier L. Using neuropsychological profiles to classify neglected children with or without physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2007;31(6):631-43 [Pubmed]

  23. Petrenko CL, Friend A, Garrido EF, Taussig HN, Culhane SE. Does subtype matter? Assessing the effects of maltreatment on functioning in preadolescent youth in out-of-home care. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2012;36(9):633-644 [Pubmed]

  24. Reidy TJ. The aggressive characteristics of abused and neglected children. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1977;33(4):1140-5 [Pubmed]

  25. Reyome ND. A comparison of the school performance of sexually abused, neglected and non-maltreated children. Child Study Journal. 1993;23(1):17-38 [Abstract available from APAPsycNET]

  26. Shields A, Cicchetti D. Reactive aggression among maltreated children: the contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 1998;27(4):381-95 [Pubmed]

  27. Shipman K, Edwards A, Brown A, Swisher L, Jennings E. Managing emotion in a maltreating context: a pilot study examining child neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2005;29(9):1015-29 [Pubmed]

  28. Toth SL, Cicchetti D. Patterns of relatedness, depressive symptomatology, and perceived competence in maltreated children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. 1996;64(1):32-41 [Pubmed]

  29. Valentino K, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Toth SL. Memory, maternal representations, and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children. Child Development. 2008;79(3):705-719 [Pubmed]

  30. Valentino K, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Toth SL. True and false recall and dissociation among maltreated children: the role of self-schema. Development & Psychopathology. 2008;20(1):213-32 [Pubmed]

  31. Valentino K, Toth SL, Cicchetti D. Autobiographical memory functioning among abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children: the overgeneral memory effect. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry. 2009;50(8):1029-38 [Pubmed]

  32. Viezel KD, Lowell A, Davis AS, Castillo J. Differential profiles of adaptive behavior of maltreated children. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2014;6(5):574-579 [Abstract available from APA PsychNET]

 

 

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