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The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.



Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

Not addressed by the included studies

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  1. Adams GG, Agrawal S, Sekhri R, Peters MJ, Pierce CM. Appearance and location of retinal haemorrhages in critically ill children. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;97(9):1138-1142 [Pubmed]

  2. Agrawal S, Peters MJ, Adams GG, Pierce CM. Prevalence of retinal haemorrhages in critically ill children. Pediatrics. 2012;129(6):e1388-e1396 [Pubmed]

  3. Altman RL, Forman S, Brand DA. Ophthalmologic findings in infants after an apparent life-threatening event. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007;17(4):648-653 [Pubmed]
  4. Bhardwaj G, Jacobs MB, Moran KT, Tan K. Terson syndrome with ipsilateral severe hemorrhagic retinopathy in a 7-month-old child. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2010;14(5):441-443. [Pubmed]

  5. Cassels-Brown A, Minford AM, Chatfield SL, Bradbury JA. Ophthalmic manifestations of neonatal protein C deficiency. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1994;78(6):486-487 [Pubmed citation only]
  6. Clark RS, Orr RA, Atkinson CS, Towbin RB, Pang D. Retinal hemorrhages associated with spinal cord arteriovenous malformation. Clinical Pediatrics. 1995;34(5):281-283 [Pubmed citation only]
  7. Curcoy AI, Trenchs V, Morales M, Serra A, Pineda M, Pou J. Do retinal haemorrhages occur in infants with convulsions? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2009;94(11):873-5 [Pubmed]

  8. Curcoy A, Trenchs V, Morales M, Serra A, Pou J. Retinal hemorrhages and apparent life-threatening events. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2010;26(2):118-120 [Pubmed]

  9. Curcoy AI, Trenchs V, Morales M, Serra A, Pou J. Is pertussis in infants a potential cause of retinal haemorrhages? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2012;97(3):239-240 [Pubmed]

  10. Currie AD, Bentley CR, Bloom PA. Retinal haemorrhage and fatal stroke in an infant with fibromuscular dysplasia. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2001; 84(3):263-264 [Pubmed]
  11. Francis PJ, Calver DM, Barnfield P, Turner C, Dalton RN, Champion MP. An infant with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria (cblC) presenting with retinal haemorrhages and subdural haematoma mimicking non-accidental injury. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2004;163(7):420-421 [Pubmed citation only]
  12. Gago LC, Wegner RK, Capone A Jr, Williams GA. Intraretinal hemorrhages and chronic subdural effusions: glutaric aciduria type 1 can be mistaken for shaken baby syndrome. Retina. 2003;23(5):724-726 [Pubmed citation only]
  13. Ganesh A, Jenny C, Geyer J, Shouldice M, Levin AV. Retinal hemorrhages in type I osteogenesis imperfecta after minor trauma. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1428-1431 [Pubmed]
  14. Goldman M, Dagan Z, Yair M, Elbaz U, Lahat E, Yair M. Severe cough and retinal hemorrhage in infants and young children. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2006;148(6):835-836 [Pubmed]
  15. Hattenbach LO, Beeg T, Kreuz W, Zubcov A. Ophthalmic manifestation of congenital protein C deficiency. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1999;3(3):188-190 [Pubmed]
  16. Kafil-Hussain NA, Monavari A, Bowell R, Thornton P, Naughten E, O'Keefe M. Ocular findings in glutaric aciduria type 1. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2000;37(5):289-293 [Pubmed]
  17. Longmuir SQ, McConnell L, Oral R, Dumitrescu A, Kamath S, Erkonen G. Retinal hemorrhages in intubated pediatric intensive care patients. Journal of AAPOS. 2014;18(2):129-133 [Pubmed]

  18. Marshman WE, Adams GG, Ohri R. Bilateral vitreous hemorrhages in an infant with low fibrinogen levels. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1999;3(4):255-256 [Pubmed]
  19. Mei-Zahav M, Uziel Y, Raz J, Ginot N, Wolach B, Fainmesser P. Convulsions and retinal haemorrhage: should we look further? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2002;86(5):334-335 [Pubmed]
  20. Odom A, Christ E, Kerr N, Byrd K, Cochran J, Barr F, Bugnitz M, Ring JC, Storgion S, Walling R, Stidham G, Quasney MW. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in pediatric patients after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 1997;99(6):E3 [Pubmed]
  21. Ong BB, Gole GA, Robertson T, McGill J, de Lore D, Crawford M. Retinal hemorrhages associated with meningitis in a child with a congenital disorder of glycosylation. Forensic Science, Medicine & Pathology. 2009;5(4):307-12 [Pubmed]

  22. Piatt JH Jr. A pitfall in the diagnosis of child abuse: external hydrocephalus, subdural hematoma, and retinal hemorrhages. Neurosurgical Focus. 1999; 7(4):e4 [Pubmed]
  23. Pitetti RD, Maffei F, Chang K, Hickey R, Berger R. Pierce MC. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and child abuse in children who present with an apparent life-threatening event. Pediatrics. 2002;110(3):557-562 [Pubmed]
  24. Reddy AR, Clarke M, Long VW. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages with subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 5-week-old infant: is this nonaccidental injury? European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010;20(4):799-801 [Pubmed]

  25. Rubin D, Christian C. Retinal hemorrhages in infants with hyponatremic seizures. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2001;17(4):313-314 [Pubmed]
  26. Russell-Eggitt IM, Thompson DA, Khair K, Liesner R, Hann IM. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome presenting with subdural haematoma and retinal haemorrhages in infancy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2000;93(11):591-592 [Pubmed citation only]
  27. Sandramouli S, Robinson R, Tsaloumas M, Willshaw HE. Retinal haemorrhages and convulsions. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1997;76(5):449-451 [Pubmed]
  28. Traboulsi EI, Silva JC, Geraghty MT, Maumenee IH, Valle D, Green WR. Ocular histopathologic characteristics of cobalamin C type vitamin B12 defect with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1992;113(3):269-280 [Pubmed]
  29. Tyagi AK, Scotcher S, Kozeis N, Willshaw HE. Can convulsions alone cause retinal haemorrhages in infants? British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1998;82(6):659-660 [Pubmed]
  30. Wetzel RC, Slater AJ, Dover GJ. Fatal intramuscular bleeding misdiagnosed as suspected nonaccidental injury. Pediatrics. 1995;95(5):771-773 [Pubmed citation only]


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