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Other useful references

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


  • Retinal haemorrhages have been described in adults in association with extreme hypoxia 1,2
  • Retinal haemorrhages have been described in children with profound anaemia 3
  • A fatal case of a child aged almost two years with a subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to verterbral artery dissection and co-existent retinal haemorrhages is described. The mechanism was attributed to a fall, witnessed by the father 4
  • There is now updated UK national guidance relating to the ophthalmological examination and assessment of children with suspected physical abuse, including a standardised examination pro forma based on our validated reporting tool 5,6
  • A further study exploring the relationship between CPR and retinal haemorrhages unfortunately could not be included as pre-CPR examinations were not conducted in the majority, and there was no mention of exclusion of AHT in the case with retinal haemorrhage 7

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  1. Ferguson LS, Burke MJ, Choromokos EA. Carbon monoxide retinopathy. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1985;103(1):66-67 [Pubmed]
  2. Rennie D, Morrissey J. Retinal changes in Himalayan climbers. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1975;93(6):395-400 [Pubmed]
  3. Mansour AM, Salti HI, Han DP, Khoury A, Friedman SM, Salem Z, Ibrahim K, Bazerbachi A, Saghir N. Ocular findings in aplastic anemia. Ophthalmologica. 2000;214(6):399-402 [Pubmed]
  4. Kristoffersen S, Vetti N, Morild I. Traumatic dissection of the vertebral artery in a toddler following a short fall. Forensic Science International. 2012;10;221(1-3):e34-8 [Pubmed]

  5. Watts P, Child maltreatment guideline working party of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, UK. Abusive head trauma and the eye in infancy. Eye. 2013, 27(10): 1227-1229 [Pubmed]

  6. Pham H, Enzenauer RW, Elder JE, Levin AV. Retinal hemorrhage after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions. American Journal of Forensic Medicine & Pathology. 2013;34(2):122-4 [Pubmed]


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