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Implications for practice

  • While bleeding disorders are recognised causes of retinal haemorrhages in children, this review has identified a small number of conditions which may also need to be considered when assessing such children
  • No evidence has been found for the putative association between apparent life-threatening events / prolonged cough and retinal haemorrhages 
  • There is no evidence, to date, to substantiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation as a cause of retinal haemorrhages, although further large-scale studies are warranted
  • Retinal haemorrhages have been noted in a very small number of cases with seizures, although one of these cases had co-existent risk factors
  • Recent studies of critically ill children have identified very rare associations with retinal haemorrhage in this population


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