You are here » CORE INFO » Reviews » Retinal Findings » Comparison between retinal findings found in AHT vs. nAHT cases » Results


The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


  • Study designs:
    6 cross-sectional studies 2,6,9,13,49,63
    5 comparative case series 10,21,54,58,62
    1 prospective cohort study 64
    1 case-control study 31
    1 retrospective cohort study 61
    57 case study / case series 1,3-5,7,8,11,12,14-20,22-30,32-48,50-53,55-57,59,60,65-71
  • Age:
    Children included in the majority of comparative studies were aged less than three years old 6,9,10,13,21,31,54,61-64. Two studies included children up to the age of 17 years 49,58
    Non comparative AHT cases included older abused children aged three to eight years old 26,47,56  Non-comparative nAHT cases included children up to age 14 years 2
  • Gender:
  • One comparative study showed no significant difference in gender distribution between AHT and nAHT cases 62
  • There was a greater preponderance of males among the accidental group than among the inflicted injury group in one study 49
  • Multilevel logistic regression analysis: the probability of abuse when a child aged less than three years is found to have retinal haemorrhages: odds ratio (OR) 15.31 (confidence interval (CI) 7.84, 29.89) 6,21,54,61,63-65
  • Among the recent studies, one includes a detailed examination of a subset of the data from previous studies 62-65

Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

Not addressed by the included studies

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