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The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


This review aimed to identify direct trauma to the eye as a consequence of abuse, whereby studies ranked 1-2 for confirmation of abuse were included and a higher rank of eye examination (1-2) were also included


Of 48 studies reviewed from the international literature, four articles addressed this issue


These four articles all met our inclusion criteria, quality standards for ophthalmological examination and ranking of abuse requirements


Study designs:

  • 3 case series 1,2,4
  • 1 case study 3



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  1. Calzada JI, Kerr NC. Traumatic hyphemas in children secondary to corporal punishment with a belt. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;135(5):719-720 [Pubmed]

  2. DeRidder CA, Berkowitz CD, Hicks RA, Laskey AL. Subconjunctival hemorrhages in infants and children: a sign of nonaccidental trauma. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2013;29(2):222-226 [Pubmed]

  3. Skarbek-Borowska SE, Campbell KT. Globe rupture and nonaccidental trauma: two case reports. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2011;27(6):544-546 [Pubmed]

  4. Spitzer SG, Luorno J, Noël LP. Isolated subconjunctival hemorrhages in nonaccidental trauma. Journal of AAPOS. 2005;9(1):53-56 [Pubmed]


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