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Included studies

What differences are found between abusive head trauma retinal findings versus non-abusive head trauma retinal findings?

Included papers


  1. Agner C, Weig SG. Arterial dissection and stroke following child abuse: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nervous System. 2005;21(5):416-420 [Pubmed]
  2. Agrawal S, Peters MJ, Adams GG, Pierce CM. Prevalence of retinal haemorrhages in critically ill children. Pediatrics. 2012;129(6):e1388-e1396 [Pubmed]

  3. Arlotti SA, Forbes BJ, Dias MS, Bonsall DJ. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages in shaken baby syndrome. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2007;11(2):175-178 [Pubmed]
  4. Arnold RW. Macular hole without hemorrhages and shaken baby syndrome: practical medicolegal documentation of children's eye trauma. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2003;40(6):355-357 [Pubmed citation only]
  5. Barcenilla AI, de la Maza VT, Cuevas NC, Ballus MM, Castanera AS, Fernandez JP. When a funduscopic examination is the clue of maltreatment diagnostic. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2006;22(7):495-496 [Pubmed]
  6. Bechtel K, Stoessel K, Leventhal JM, Ogle E, Teague B, Lavietes S, Banyas B, Allen K, Dziura J, Duncan C. Characteristics that distinguish accidental from abusive injury in hospitalized young children with head trauma. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):165-168 [Pubmed]
  7. Becker JC, Liersch R, Tautz C, Schlueter B, Andler W. Shaken baby syndrome: report on four pairs of twins. Child Abuse and Neglect. 1998;22(9):931-937 [Pubmed]
  8. Bell E, Shouldice M, Levin AV. Abusive head trauma: A perpetrator confesses. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2011;35(1):74-77 [Pubmed]

  9. Binenbaum G, Christian CW, Ichord RN, Ying GS, Simon MA, Romero K, Pollock AN, Forbes BJ. Retinal hemorrhage and brain injury patterns on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in children with head trauma. Journal of AAPOS. 2013;17(6):603-8 [Pubmed]

  10. Binenbaum G, Mirza-George N, Christian CW, Forbes BJ. Odds of abuse associated with retinal hemorrhages in children suspected of child abuse. Journal of AAPOS. 2009;13(3):268-72. [Pubmed]

  11. Biron D, Shelton D. Perpetrator accounts in infant abusive head trauma brought about by a shaking event. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2005;29(12):1347-1358 [Pubmed]
  12. Brown SM, Bradley JC. Hemorrhagic posterior vitreous detachment without intraretinal hemorrhage in a shaken infant. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2007;125(9):1301 [Pubmed citation only]
  13. Buys YM, Levin AV, Enzenauer RW, Elder JE, Letourneau MA, Humphreys RP, Mian M, Morin JD. Retinal findings after head trauma in infants and young children. Ophthalmology. 1992;99(11):1718-1723 [Pubmed]
  14. Caputo G, de Haller R, Metge F, Dureau, P. Ischemic retinopathy and neovascular proliferation secondary to shaken baby syndrome. Retina. 2008;28(3 suppl):S42-46 [Pubmed]
  15. Carter JE, McCormick AQ. Whiplash shaking syndrome: retinal hemorrhages and computerized axial tomography of the brain. Child Abuse and Neglect. 1983;7(3):279-286 [Pubmed]
  16. Christian CW, Taylor AA, Hertle RW, Duhaime AC. Retinal hemorrhages caused by accidental household trauma. Journal of Pediatrics. 1999;135(1):125-127 [Pubmed]
  17. Drack AV, Petronio J, Capone A. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages in documented cases of child abuse. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1999;128(3):340-344 [Pubmed]
  18. Duhaime AC, Christian C, Armonda R, Hunter J, Hertle R. Disappearing subdural hematomas in children. Pediatric Neurosurgery. 1996;25(3):116-122 [Pubmed]
  19. Elder JE, Taylor RG, Klug GL. Retinal haemorrhage in accidental head trauma in childhood. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 1991;27(5):286-289 [Pubmed]
  20. Ells AL, Kherani A, Lee D. Epiretinal membrane formation is a late manifestation of shaken baby syndrome. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2003;7(3):223-225 [Pubmed]
  21. Feldman KW, Bethel R, Shugerman RP, Grossman DC, Grady MS, Ellenbogen RG. The cause of infant and toddler subdural hemorrhage: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2001;108(3):636-646 [Pubmed]
  22. Forbes BJ, Cox M, Christian CW. Retinal hemorrhages in patients with epidural hematomas. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2008;12(2):177-180 [Pubmed]
  23. Gardner HB. A witnessed short fall mimicking presumed shaken baby syndrome (inflicted childhood neurotrauma). Pediatric Neurosurgery. 2007;43(5):433-435 [Pubmed]
  24. Gaynon MW, Koh K, Marmor MF, Frankel LR. Retinal folds in the shaken baby syndrome. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1988;106(4):423-425 [Pubmed]
  25. Giangiacomo J, Barkett KJ. Ophthalmoscopic findings in occult child abuse. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1985;22(6):234-237 [Pubmed]
  26. Gilles EE, Nelson MD Jr. Cerebral complications of nonaccidental head injury in childhood. Pediatric Neurology. 1998;19(2):119-128 [Pubmed]
  27. Gnanaraj L, Gilliland MGF, Yahya RR, Rutka JT, Drake J, Dirks P, Levin AV. Ocular manifestations of crush head injury in children. Eye. 2007;21(1):5-10 [Pubmed]
  28. Goldenberg DT, Wu D, Capone A Jr, Drenser KA, Trese MT. Nonaccidental trauma and peripheral retinal nonperfusion. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(3):561-566. [Pubmed]

  29. Greenwald MJ, Weiss A, Oesterle CS, Friendly DS. Traumatic retinoschisis in battered babies. Ophthalmology. 1986;93(5):618-625 [Pubmed]
  30. Han DP, Wilkinson WS. Late ophthalmic manifestations of the shaken baby syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1990;27(6):299-303 [Pubmed]
  31. Haviland J, Russell RI. Outcome after severe non-accidental head injury. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1997;77(6):504-507 [Pubmed]
  32. Healey K, Schrading W. A case of shaken baby syndrome with unilateral retinal hemorrhage with no associated intracranial hemorrhage. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2006;24(5):616-617 [Pubmed citation only]
  33. Helfer RE, Scheurer SL, Alexander R, Reed J,Slovis TL. Trauma to the bones of small infants from passive exercise: a factor in the etiology of child abuse. Journal of Pediatrics. 1984;104(1):47-50 [Pubmed]
  34. Hylton C, Goldberg MF. Images in clinical medicine. Circumpapillary retinal ridge in the shaken-baby syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine. 2004;351(2):170 [Pubmed]
  35. Kapoor S, Schiffman J, Tang R, Kiang E, Li H, Woodward J. The significance of white-centered retinal hemorrhages in the shaken baby syndrome. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1997;13(3):183-185 [Pubmed]
  36. Kivlin JD, Simons KB, Lazoritz S, Ruttum MS. Shaken baby syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(7):1246-1254 [Pubmed]
  37. Lambert SR, Johnson TE, Hoyt CS. Optic nerve sheath and retinal hemorrhages associated with the shaken baby syndrome. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1986;104(10):1509-1512 [Pubmed]
  38. Lantz PE, Sinal SH, Stanton CA, Weaver RG Jr. Perimacular retinal folds from childhood head trauma. British Medical Journal. 2004;328(7442):754-756 [Pubmed]
  39. Lash SC, Williams CP, Luff AJ, Hodgkins PR. 360 degree giant retinal tear as a result of presumed non-accidental injury. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2004;88(1):155 [Pubmed citation only]
  40. Levin AV, Magnusson MR, Rafto SE, Zimmerman RA. Shaken baby syndrome diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1989;5(3):181-186 [Pubmed]
  41. Levy I, Wysenbeek YS, Nitzan M, Nissenkorn I, Lerman-Sagle T, Steinherz R. Occult ocular damage as a leading sign in the battered child syndrome. Metabolic, Pediatric and Systemic Ophthalmology. 1990;13(1):20-22 [Pubmed]
  42. Lueder GT, Turner JW, Paschall R. Perimacular retinal folds simulating nonaccidental injury in an infant. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2006;124(12):1782-1783 [Pubmed citation only]
  43. Madsen PH. Traumatic retinal angiopathy. Report of six cases of Purtscher's disease. Acta Ophthalmologica. 1965;43(6):776-786 [Pubmed citation only]
  44. Margolin EA, Dev LS, Trobe JD. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in perpetrator-confessed cases of abusive head trauma. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2010;128(6):795 [Pubmed citation only]

  45. Matthews GP, Das A. Dense vitreous hemorrhages predict poor visual and neurological prognosis in infants with shaken baby syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1996;33(4):260-265 [Pubmed]
  46. McCabe CF, Donahue SP. Prognostic indicators for vision and mortality in shaken baby syndrome. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2000;118(3):373-377 [Pubmed]
  47. Mierisch RF, Frasier LD, Braddock SR, Giangiacomo J, Berkenbosch JW. Retinal hemorrhages in an 8-year-old child: an uncommon presentation of abusive injury. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2004;20(2):118-120 [Pubmed]
  48. Mills M. Funduscopic lesions associated with mortality in shaken baby syndrome. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1998;2(2):67-71 [Pubmed]
  49. Minns RA, Jones PA, Tandon A, Fleck BW, Mulvihill AO, Elton RA. Prediction of inflicted brain injury in infants and children using retinal imaging. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1227-34 [Pubmed]

  50. Morad Y, Kim YM, Armstrong DC, Huyer D, Mian M, Levin AV. Correlation between retinal abnormalities and intracranial abnormalities in the shaken baby syndrome. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2002;134(3):354-359 [Pubmed]
  51. Moran K, Reddie I, Jacobs M. Severe haemorrhagic retinopathy and traumatic retinoschisis in a 2 year old infant, after an 11 metre fall onto concrete. Acta Paediatrica. 2008;97(suppl 459):149 Full article published: Reddie IC, Bhardwaj G, Dauber SL, Jacobs MB, Moran KT. Bilateral retinoschisis in a 2-year-old following a three-storey fall. Eye. 2010;24(8):1426-1427 [Pubmed citation only]
  52. Ogershok PR, Jaynes ME, Hogg JP. Delayed papilledema and hydrocephalus associated with shaking impact syndrome. Clinical Pediatrics. 2001;40(6):351-354 [Pubmed citation only]
  53. Oral R, Yagmur F, Nashelsky M, Turkmen M, Kirby P. Fatal abusive head trauma cases: consequence of medical staff missing milder forms of physical abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2008;24(12):816-821 [Pubmed]
  54. Pierre-Kahn V, Roche O, Dureau P, Uteza Y, Renier D, Pierre-Kahn A, Dufier JL. Ophthalmologic findings in suspected child abuse victims with subdural hematomas. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(9):1718-1723 [Pubmed]
  55. Pitetti RD, Maffei F, Chang K, Hickey R, Berger R. Pierce MC. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and child abuse in children who present with an apparent life-threatening event. Pediatrics. 2002;110(3):557-562 [Pubmed]
  56. Salehi-Had H, Brandt JD, Rosas AJ, Rogers KK. Findings in older children with abusive head injury: does shaken-child syndrome exist? Pediatrics. 2006;117(5):e1039-1044 [Pubmed]
  57. Schloff S, Mullaney PB, Armstrong DC, Simantirakis E, Humphreys RP, Myseros JS, Buncic JR, Levin AV. Retinal findings in children with intracranial hemorrhage. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(8):1472-1476 [Pubmed]
  58. Sturm V, Knecht PB, Landau K, Menke MN. Rare retinal haemorrhages in translational accidental head trauma in children. Eye. 2009;23(7):1535-41 [Pubmed]

  59. Sturm V, Landau K, Menke MN. Optical coherence tomography findings in Shaken Baby syndrome. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;146(3):363-368 [Pubmed]
  60. Trenchs V, Curcoy AI, Morales M, Serra A, Navarro R, Pou J. Retinal haemorrhages in head trauma resulting from falls: differential diagnosis with non-accidental trauma in patients younger than 2 years of age. Child's Nervous System. 2008;24(7):815-820 [Pubmed]
  61. Trenchs V, Curcoy AI, Navarro R, Pou J. Subdural haematomas and physical abuse in the first two years of life. Pediatric Neurosurgery. 2007;43(5):352-357 [Pubmed]
  62. Vinchon M, De Foort-Dhellemmes S, Desurmont M, Delestret I. Confessed abuse versus witnessed accidents in infants: comparison of clinical, radiological, and ophthalmological data in corroborated cases. Child's Nervous System. 2010;26(5):637-645. [Pubmed]

  63. Vinchon M, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Desurmont M, Dhellemmes P. Accidental and nonaccidental head injuries in infants: a prospective study. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2005;102(4 Suppl):380-384 [Pubmed]
  64. Vinchon M, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Noulé N, Duhem R, Dhellemmes P. Accidental or non-accidental brain injury in infants. Prospective study of 88 cases [French]. Presse Médicale. 2004;33(17):1174-1179 [Pubmed]
  65. Vinchon M, Noizet O, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Soto-Ares G, Dhellemmes P. Infantile subdural hematomas due to traffic accidents. Pediatric Neurosurgery. 2002;37(5):245-253 [Pubmed]
  66. Wahl NG, Woodall BN. Hypothermia in shaken infant syndrome. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1995;11(4):233-234 [Pubmed citation only]
  67. Waterhouse W, Enzenauer RW, Parmley VC. Inflammatory orbital tumor as an ocular sign of a battered child. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1992;114(4):510-512 [Pubmed citation only]
  68. Watts P, Obi E. Retinal folds and retinoschisis in accidental and non-accidental head injury. Eye. 2008;22(12):1514-1516 [Pubmed]
  69. Weidenthal DT, Levin DB. Retinal detachment in a battered infant. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1976;81(6):725-727 [Pubmed]
  70. Weis A, Kodsi SR, Rubin SE, Esernio-Jenssen D, Ferrone PJ, McCormick SA. Subretinal hemorrhage masquerading as a hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in a case of nonaccidental trauma. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2007;11(6):616-617 [Pubmed]
  71. Wilkinson WS, Han DP, Rappley MD, Owings CL. Retinal hemorrhage predicts neurologic injury in the shaken baby syndrome. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1989;107(10):1472-1474 [Pubmed]


What are the differential diagnoses of retinal haemorrhages in children with clinical features associated with child abuse?

Included papers


  1. Adams GG, Agrawal S, Sekhri R, Peters MJ, Pierce CM. Appearance and location of retinal haemorrhages in critically ill children. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2013;97(9):1138-1142 [Pubmed]

  2. Agrawal S, Peters MJ, Adams GG, Pierce CM. Prevalence of retinal haemorrhages in critically ill children. Pediatrics. 2012;129(6):e1388-e1396 [Pubmed]

  3. Altman RL, Forman S, Brand DA. Ophthalmologic findings in infants after an apparent life-threatening event. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007;17(4):648-653 [Pubmed]
  4. Bhardwaj G, Jacobs MB, Moran KT, Tan K. Terson syndrome with ipsilateral severe hemorrhagic retinopathy in a 7-month-old child. Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2010;14(5):441-443. [Pubmed]

  5. Cassels-Brown A, Minford AM, Chatfield SL, Bradbury JA. Ophthalmic manifestations of neonatal protein C deficiency. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1994;78(6):486-487 [Pubmed citation only]
  6. Clark RS, Orr RA, Atkinson CS, Towbin RB, Pang D. Retinal hemorrhages associated with spinal cord arteriovenous malformation. Clinical Pediatrics. 1995;34(5):281-283 [Pubmed citation only]
  7. Curcoy AI, Trenchs V, Morales M, Serra A, Pineda M, Pou J. Do retinal haemorrhages occur in infants with convulsions? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2009;94(11):873-5 [Pubmed]

  8. Curcoy A, Trenchs V, Morales M, Serra A, Pou J. Retinal hemorrhages and apparent life-threatening events. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2010;26(2):118-120 [Pubmed]

  9. Curcoy AI, Trenchs V, Morales M, Serra A, Pou J. Is pertussis in infants a potential cause of retinal haemorrhages? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2012;97(3):239-240 [Pubmed]

  10. Currie AD, Bentley CR, Bloom PA. Retinal haemorrhage and fatal stroke in an infant with fibromuscular dysplasia. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2001; 84(3):263-264 [Pubmed]
  11. Francis PJ, Calver DM, Barnfield P, Turner C, Dalton RN, Champion MP. An infant with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria (cblC) presenting with retinal haemorrhages and subdural haematoma mimicking non-accidental injury. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2004;163(7):420-421 [Pubmed citation only]
  12. Gago LC, Wegner RK, Capone A Jr, Williams GA. Intraretinal hemorrhages and chronic subdural effusions: glutaric aciduria type 1 can be mistaken for shaken baby syndrome. Retina. 2003;23(5):724-726 [Pubmed citation only]
  13. Ganesh A, Jenny C, Geyer J, Shouldice M, Levin AV. Retinal hemorrhages in type I osteogenesis imperfecta after minor trauma. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(7):1428-1431 [Pubmed]
  14. Goldman M, Dagan Z, Yair M, Elbaz U, Lahat E, Yair M. Severe cough and retinal hemorrhage in infants and young children. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2006;148(6):835-836 [Pubmed]
  15. Hattenbach LO, Beeg T, Kreuz W, Zubcov A. Ophthalmic manifestation of congenital protein C deficiency. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1999;3(3):188-190 [Pubmed]
  16. Kafil-Hussain NA, Monavari A, Bowell R, Thornton P, Naughten E, O'Keefe M. Ocular findings in glutaric aciduria type 1. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2000;37(5):289-293 [Pubmed]
  17. Longmuir SQ, McConnell L, Oral R, Dumitrescu A, Kamath S, Erkonen G. Retinal hemorrhages in intubated pediatric intensive care patients. Journal of AAPOS. 2014;18(2):129-133 [Pubmed]

  18. Marshman WE, Adams GG, Ohri R. Bilateral vitreous hemorrhages in an infant with low fibrinogen levels. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 1999;3(4):255-256 [Pubmed]
  19. Mei-Zahav M, Uziel Y, Raz J, Ginot N, Wolach B, Fainmesser P. Convulsions and retinal haemorrhage: should we look further? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2002;86(5):334-335 [Pubmed]
  20. Odom A, Christ E, Kerr N, Byrd K, Cochran J, Barr F, Bugnitz M, Ring JC, Storgion S, Walling R, Stidham G, Quasney MW. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in pediatric patients after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 1997;99(6):E3 [Pubmed]
  21. Ong BB, Gole GA, Robertson T, McGill J, de Lore D, Crawford M. Retinal hemorrhages associated with meningitis in a child with a congenital disorder of glycosylation. Forensic Science, Medicine & Pathology. 2009;5(4):307-12 [Pubmed]

  22. Piatt JH Jr. A pitfall in the diagnosis of child abuse: external hydrocephalus, subdural hematoma, and retinal hemorrhages. Neurosurgical Focus. 1999; 7(4):e4 [Pubmed]
  23. Pitetti RD, Maffei F, Chang K, Hickey R, Berger R. Pierce MC. Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and child abuse in children who present with an apparent life-threatening event. Pediatrics. 2002;110(3):557-562 [Pubmed]
  24. Reddy AR, Clarke M, Long VW. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages with subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 5-week-old infant: is this nonaccidental injury? European Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010;20(4):799-801 [Pubmed]

  25. Rubin D, Christian C. Retinal hemorrhages in infants with hyponatremic seizures. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2001;17(4):313-314 [Pubmed]
  26. Russell-Eggitt IM, Thompson DA, Khair K, Liesner R, Hann IM. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome presenting with subdural haematoma and retinal haemorrhages in infancy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2000;93(11):591-592 [Pubmed citation only]
  27. Sandramouli S, Robinson R, Tsaloumas M, Willshaw HE. Retinal haemorrhages and convulsions. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1997;76(5):449-451 [Pubmed]
  28. Traboulsi EI, Silva JC, Geraghty MT, Maumenee IH, Valle D, Green WR. Ocular histopathologic characteristics of cobalamin C type vitamin B12 defect with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1992;113(3):269-280 [Pubmed]
  29. Tyagi AK, Scotcher S, Kozeis N, Willshaw HE. Can convulsions alone cause retinal haemorrhages in infants? British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1998;82(6):659-660 [Pubmed]
  30. Wetzel RC, Slater AJ, Dover GJ. Fatal intramuscular bleeding misdiagnosed as suspected nonaccidental injury. Pediatrics. 1995;95(5):771-773 [Pubmed citation only]


Retinal haemorrhages in newborn infants

Included papers


  1. Bergen R, Margolis S. Retinal hemorrhages in the newborn. Annals of Ophthalmology. 1976;8(1):53-56 [Pubmed]
  2. Berkus MD, Ramamurthy RS, O'Connor PS, Brown K, Hayashi RH. Cohort study of silastic obstetric vacuum cup deliveries: I. Safety of the instrument. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1985;66(4):503-509 [Pubmed]
  3. Berkus MD, Ramamurthy RS, O'Connor PS, Brown KJ, Hayashi RH. Cohort study of silastic obstetric vacuum cup deliveries: II. Unsuccessful vacuum extraction. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1986;68(5):662-666 [Pubmed]
  4. Cabrera MT, Maldonado RS, Toth CA, O'Connell RV, Chen BB, Chiu SJ, Farsiu S, Wallace DK, Stinnett SS, Panayotti GM, Swamy GK, Freedman SF. Subfoveal fluid in healthy full-term newborns observed by handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012;153(1):167-175. [Pubmed]

  5. Cabrera MT, O'Connell RV, Toth CA, Maldonado RS, Tran-Viet D, Allingham MJ, Chiu SJ, Farsiu S, Panayotti GM, Swamy GK, Freedman SF. Macular findings in healthy full-term Hispanic newborns observed by hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina. 2013;44(5):448-454 [Pubmed]

  6. Emerson MV, Pieramici DJ, Stoessel KM, Berreen JP, Gariano RF. Incidence and rate of disappearance of retinal hemorrhage in newborns. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(1):36-39 [Pubmed]
  7. Gonzalez Viejo I, Ferrer Novella C, Pueyo Subias M, Ronchera Oms JM, Bueno Lozano J, Ferrer Novella E, Vicente Aznar E, Honrubia Lopez FM. Hemorrhagic retinopathy in newborns: frequency, form of presentation, associated factors and significance. European Journal of Ophthalmology. 1995;5(4):247-250 [Pubmed]
  8. Hughes LA, May K, Talbot JF, Parsons MA. Incidence, distribution, and duration of birth-related retinal hemorrhages: a prospective study. Journal of AAPOS: American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 2006;10(2):102-106 [Pubmed]
  9. Kuit JA, Eppinga HG, Wallenburg HC, Huikeshoven FJ. A randomized comparison of vacuum extraction delivery with a rigid and a pliable cup. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993;82(2):280-284 [Pubmed]
  10. Schoenfeld A, Buckman G, Nissenkorn I, Cohen S, Ben-Sira I, Ovadia J. Retinal hemorrhages in the newborn following labour induced by oxytocin or dinoprostone. Archives of Ophthalmology. 1985;103(7):932-934 [Pubmed]
  11. Svenningsen L, Eidal K. Retinal hemorrhages and traction forces in vacuum extraction. Early Human Development. 1988;16(2-3):263-269 [Pubmed]
  12. Svenningsen L, Lindemann R, Eidal K, Jensen O. Neonatal retinal hemorrhages and neurobehavior related to tractive force in vacuum extraction. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1987;66(2):165-169 [Pubmed]
  13. Svenningsen L, Lindemann R, Eidal K. Measurements of fetal head compression pressure during bearing down and their relationship to the condition of the newborn. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1988;67(2):129-133 [Pubmed]
  14. Svenningsen L, Eidal K. Lack of correlation between umbilical artery pH, retinal hemorrhages and Apgar score in the newborn. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 1987;66(7):639-642 [Pubmed]
  15. Williams MC, Knuppel RA, O'Brien WF, Weiss A, Spellacy WN, Pietrantoni M. Obstetrics correlates of neonatal retinal hemorrhage. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1993;81(5 (part 1)):688-694 [Pubmed]


Which features or characteristics of eye injury are present in child maltreatment, neglect and fabricated or induced illness? 

Included papers


  1. Calzada JI, Kerr NC. Traumatic hyphemas in children secondary to corporal punishment with a belt. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;135(5):719-720 [Pubmed]

  2. DeRidder CA, Berkowitz CD, Hicks RA, Laskey AL. Subconjunctival hemorrhages in infants and children: a sign of nonaccidental trauma. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2013;29(2):222-226 [Pubmed]

  3. Skarbek-Borowska SE, Campbell KT. Globe rupture and nonaccidental trauma: two case reports. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2011;27(6):544-546 [Pubmed]

  4. Spitzer SG, Luorno J, Noël LP. Isolated subconjunctival hemorrhages in nonaccidental trauma. Journal of AAPOS. 2005;9(1):53-56 [Pubmed]



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