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Results

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.

 

  • 27 studies (28 articles) addressed this question 1-28
  • These 27 studies all met our inclusion criteria (early years / school aged neglect) and quality ranking of confirmation of neglect / emotional abuse (early years / school aged neglect)
  • Two articles were published on the same study 25,26
  • We wished to identify features in the primary carer-child relationship; unfortunately there are still no studies relating to fathers in the context of early neglect, thus this review addresses solely mother-child interactions.
  • Study designs:
  • 23 case-control studies 1-11,13-18,20,22-27
  • 4 cohort studies 12,19,21,28

 

  • Age: Due to the varying ages encompassed in the studies, results are grouped by mean age; it was not possible to separate smaller age bands between 6 and 14 years
  • Gender: One study analysed the results by the gender of the child but found no difference 1
  • Two studies included fathers, but no study analysed the father-child relationship specifically 3,17

 

Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

 

Among the included studies, 25/27 of the study populations were well-matched for ethnicity, maternal education, socio-economic grouping (insurance status for North American studies) and maternal age. In one study the maltreated mothers had lower educational attainment and were younger than the control mothers 25,26

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References

  1. Bennett DS, Sullivan MW, Lewis M. Relations of parental report and observation of parenting to maltreatment history. Child Maltreatment. 2006;11(1):63–75 [Pubmed]

  2. Bousha DM, Twentyman CT. Mother-child interactional style in abuse, neglect, and control groups: naturalistic observations in the home. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1984;93(1):106-14 [Pubmed citation only]

  3. Burgess RL, Conger RD. Family interaction in abusive, neglectful, and normal families. Child Development. 1978;49(4):1163-73 [Pubmed]

  4. Christopoulos C, Bonvillian JD, Crittenden PM. Maternal language input and child maltreatment. Infant Mental Health Journal. 1988;9(4):272-286 [Abstract provided by Wiley Online]
  5. Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA, Toth SL. Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Development and psychopathology. 2006;18(3):623-649 [Pubmed]
  6. Crittenden PM. Abusing, neglecting, problematic, and adequate dyads: Differentiating by patterns of interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 1981;27(3):201-218 [Abstract available from JSTOR]

  7. Crittenden PM, Bonvillian JD. The relationship between maternal risk status and maternal sensitivity. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1984;54(2):250-262 [Pubmed]
  8. Crittenden PM, DiLalla DL. Compulsive compliance: the development of an inhibitory coping strategy in infancy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1988;16(5):585-599 [Pubmed]
  9. DiLalla DL, Crittenden PM. Dimensions of maltreated children's home behavior: A factor analytic approach. Infant Behavior and Development. 1990;13(4):439-460 [Abstract provided by Science Direct]
  10. Edwards A, Shipman K, Brown A. The socialization of emotional understanding: a comparison of neglectful and nonneglectful mothers and their children. Child Maltreatment. 2005;10(3):293-304 [Pubmed]

  11. Eigsti IM, Cicchetti D. The impact of child maltreatment on expressive syntax at 60 months. Developmental Science. 2004;7(1):88-102 [Pubmed]
  12. English DJ, Thompson R, Graham JC, Briggs EC. Toward a definition of neglect in young children. Child Maltreatment. 2005;10(2):190-206 [Pubmed]
  13. Fagan J, Dore MM. Mother-child play interaction in neglecting and non-neglecting mothers. Early Child Development and Care. 1993;87:59-68 [Abstract provided by American Psychological Association PsycNET]
  14. Friedrich WN, Tyler JD, Clark JA. Personality and psychophysiological variables in abusive, neglectful, and low-income control mothers. The Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 1985;173(8):449-60. [Pubmed]

  15. Herrenkohl EC, Herrenkohl RC, Toedter L, Yanushefski AM. Parent-child interactions in abusive and nonabusive families. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. 1984;23(6):641-648. [Abstract available from Science Direct]

  16. Jacobsen SL, McKinney CH. A music therapy tool for assessing parent–child interaction in cases of emotional neglect. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2014 [Abstract available from Springer Link]

  17. Kimball W, Stewart R, Conger R, Burgess RL. A comparison of family interaction in single versus two parent abusive, neglectful and control families. In T Field, S Goldberg, D Stern, A Sostek (Eds), High Risk Infants and Children: Adult and Peer Interactions. New York: Academic Press 1980 43-59.

  18. Koenig AL, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. Child compliance / noncompliance and maternal contributors to internalization in maltreating and nonmaltreating dyads. Child Development. 2000;71(4):1018-1032 [Pubmed]

  19. Lindhiem O, Bernard K, Dozier M. Maternal sensitivity: within-person variability and the utility of multiple assessments. Child Maltreatment. 2011;16(1):41-50 [Pubmed]

  20. Macfie J, Toth SL, Rogosch FA, Robinson J, Emde RN, Cicchetti D. Effect of maltreatment on preschoolers' narrative representations of responses to relieve distress and of role reversal. Developmental Psychology. 1999;35(2):460-465 [Pubmed]
  21. Mustillo SA, Dorsey S, Conover K, Burns BJ. Parental depression and child outcomes: the mediating effects of abuse and neglect. Journal of Marriage and Family. 2011;73(1):164-180 [Abstract provided by Wiley Online]
  22. Pianta R, Egeland B, Erickson MF. The antecedents of maltreatment: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction Research Project. In: Cicchetti D, Carlson V, editors. Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1989. p.203-253 [Abstract provided by Cambridge Books Online]
  23. Pollitt E, Eichler AW, Chan CK. Psychosocial development and behavior of mothers of failure-to-thrive children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1975;45(4):525-537 [Pubmed]
  24. Rodrigo MJ, Leon I, Quinones I, Lage A, Byrne S, Bobes MA. Brain and personality bases of insensitivity to infant cues in neglectful mothers: an event-related potential study. Development & Psychopathology. 2011;23(1):163-176 [Pubmed]

  25. Skowron EA, Cipriano-Essel E, Benjamin LS, Pincus AL, Van Ryzin MJ. Cardiac vagal tone and quality of parenting show concurrent and time-ordered associations that diverge in abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating mothers. Couple & Family Psychology. 2013;2(2):95-115 [Pubmed]

  26. Skowron EA, Loken E, Gatzke-Kopp LM, Cipriano-Essel EA, Woehrle PL, Van Epps JJ, Gowda A, Ammerman RT. Mapping cardiac physiology and parenting processes in maltreating mother-child dyads. Journal of Family Psychology. 2011;25(5):663-674 [Pubmed]

  27. Toth SL, Cicchetti D, Macfie J, Emde RN. Representations of self and other in the narratives of neglected, physically abused, and sexually abused preschoolers. Development and Psychopathology. 1997;9(4):781-796 [Pubmed]
  28. Valentino K, Cicchetti D, Toth SL, Rogosch FA. Mother-child play and maltreatment: a longitudinal analysis of emerging social behavior from infancy to toddlerhood. Developmental Psychology. 2011;47(5):1280-1294 [Pubmed]



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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