You are here » CORE INFO » Reviews » Oral Injuries » Other physically abusive intra-oral injuries » Results


The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


What other intra-oral injuries are caused by physical abuse to children?

  • Study designs

1 cross-sectional study

16 case study / case series


  • Confirmation of abuse was high; in 12/17 studies the ranking of abuse was 1 or 2


  • Age (where provided):

Less than two years 1,4,5,6,8,11,14,15,17

Less than five years 7,9,13,15,16,17

Less than 15 years 3,8,10,12,16


  • No study addressed disabled children


Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

  • One study addressing this observed no difference in ethnicity to that of the reference population 7

Click here to open


  1. Barrett TG, Debelle GD. Near-fatal aspiration of a child's dummy: design fault or deliberate injury? Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine. 1995;12(2):154-155 [Pubmed]
  2. Becker DB, Needleman HL, Kotelchuck M. Child abuse and dentistry: orofacial trauma and its recognition by dentists. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1978;97(1):24-28 [Pubmed]
  3. Carrotte PV. An unusual case of child abuse. British Dental Journal. 1990;168(11):444-445 [Pubmed]
  4. Dhanani RM, Nield LS, Ogershok PR. Traumatized twins: a case report and discussion of the maltreatment of multiples. Clinical Pediatrics. 2006;45(2):173-176 [Pubmed citation only]
  5. Grace A, Grace S. Child abuse within the ear, nose and throat. Journal of Otolaryngology. 1987;16(2):108-111 [Pubmed]
  6. Lee LY, Ilan J, Mulvey T. Human biting of children and oral manifestations of abuse. A case report and literature review. Journal of Dentistry for Children. 2002;69(1):92-95 [Pubmed]
  7. Lopez MR, Abd-Allah S, Deming DD, Piantini R, Young-Snodgrass A, Perkin R, Barcega B, Sheridan-Matney C. Oral, jaw, and neck injury in infants and children: From abusive trauma or intubation? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2014;30(5):305-310 [Pubmed]

  8. Manning SC, Casselbrant M, Lammers D. Otolaryngologic manifestations of child abuse. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 1990;20(1):7-16 [Pubmed]
  9. Naidoo S. A profile of the oro-facial injuries in child physical abuse at a children's hospital. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2000;24(4):521-534 [Pubmed]
  10. Phillips VM, van der Heyde Y. Oro-facial trauma in child abuse fatalities. South African Medical Journal. 2006;96(3):213-215 [Pubmed]
  11. Piatt JH Jr, Steinberg M. Isolated spinal cord injury as a presentation of child abuse. Pediatrics. 1995;96(4):780-782 [Pubmed]
  12. Schuman NJ, Hamilton RL. Discovery of child abuse with associated dental fracture in a hospital-affiliated clinic: report of a case with a four-year follow up. Special Care in Dentistry. 1982;2(6):250-251 [Pubmed citation only]
  13. Sobel RS, Kerns DL. A case of child abuse. In: Sanger RG, Bross DC, eds. Clinical management of child abuse. Chicago: Quintessence, 1983:159–64
  14. Stricker T, Lips U, Sennhauser, FH. Oral bleeding: child abuse alert. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2002;38(5):528-529 [Pubmed]
  15. Swann A, Glasgow J. Child abuse - we must increase our level of suspicion. Ulster Medical Journal. 1982;51(2):115-120 [Pubmed citation only]
  16. Symons A, Rowe P, Romaniuk K. Dental aspects of child abuse: review and case reports. Australian Dental Journal. 1987;32(1):42-47 [Pubmed citation only]
  17. Tate RJ. Facial injuries associated with the battered child syndrome. British Journal of Oral Surgery. 1971;9(1):41-45 [Pubmed citation only]


^ back to top