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Other useful references

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.

 

What other intra-oral injuries are caused by physical abuse to children?

  • Are dentists referring suspected physical abuse cases? Surveys suggest only 8-18% of suspected abuse cases are referred by dentists 1,2
  • Dental neglect frequently co-exists with oral abuse 3
  • Injury to alveolar margin and mucosa with later oesophageal atresia 4
  • UK guidance on child protection referrals for dental practitioners 5,6
  • Dental trauma included dental fractures leading to discolouration of teeth and / or inappropriately missing teeth 7
  • Discolouration may occur with dentinogenesis imperfecta 7
  • Hypopharyngeal and proximal esophageal rupture with abscess formation 8
  • Although following the original review we are no longer including single case reports, a recent case study has demonstrated supratonsillar lacerations and scattered facial petechiae in an 11 month old infant 9

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References

  1. Becker DB, Needleman HL, Kotelchuck M. Child abuse and dentistry: orofacial trauma and its recognition by dentists. Journal of the American Dental Association. 1978;97(1):24-28 [Pubmed]
  2. John V, Messer LB, Arora R, Fung S, Hatzis E, Nguyen T, San A, Thomas K. Child abuse and dentistry: a study of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in Victoria, Australia. Australian Dental Journal. 1999;44(4):259-267 [Pubmed]
  3. Donly KJ, Nowak AJ. Maxillofacial, neck, and dental lesions of child abuse. In: Reece RM, ed. Child Abuse: Medical Diagnosis and Management. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1994:150-166
  4. Morris TMO, Reay HAJ. A battered baby with pharyngeal atresia. Journal of Laryngology and Otology. 1971;85(7):729-731 [Pubmed citation only]
  5. Harris J, Sidebotham P, Welbury R, Townsend R Green M, Goodwin J, Franklin C. Child protection and the dental team: an introduction to safeguarding children in dental practice. Sheffield: Committee of Postgraduate Dental Deans and Directors (COPDEND), 2009. [PDF guidance brochure]

  6. General Dental Council. Standards for Dental Professionals. 2005. [PDF guidance brochure]
  7. Wright J, Thornton J. Osteogenesis imperfecta with dentinogenesis imperfecta. A mistaken case of child abuse. Pediatric Dentistry. 1983;5(3):207-209 [Pubmed abstract only]
  8. Morzaria S, Walton JM, MacMillan A. Inflicted esophageal perforation. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1998;33(6):871-873 [Pubmed]
  9. Howsam FZ, Perera L, Trounce J. Oral injury in child abuse. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2014;99(3):207 [Pubmed]

Traditional treatment

  • Ebinyo – Infant oral mutilation involving extirpation of primary canine tooth follicles for perceived medical benefits in certain African tribes1,2

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References

  1. Edwards PC, Levering N, Wetzel E, Saini T. Extirpation of the primary canine tooth follicles - a form of infant oral mutilation. Journal of the American Dental Association. 2008;139(4):442-450 [Pubmed]
  2. Welbury RR, Nunn JH, Gordon PH, Green-Abate C. "Killer" canine removal and its sequelae in Addis Ababa. Quintessence International. 1993;24(5):323-7 [Pubmed]

Accidental oral injuries

  • 30% of children aged one to six years sustain dental trauma, the peak age being three years 1-4
  • Dental trauma is more frequent in boys than girls 1-4
  • The commonest accidental injury is laceration to lips and mucosa 1-4
  • Dental injuries are more common in: 4
    – the lower socio-economic group
    – obese children
    – areas of poor dental care provision (Brazil)
  • The infants of mothers with more than eight years’ education sustained more dental injuries during the first year of life 1

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References

  1. Feldens CA, Kramer PF, Vidal SG, Faraco IM Jr, Vitolo MR. Traumatic dental injuries in the first year of life and associated factors in Brazilian infants. Journal of Dentistry for Children. 2008;75(1):7-13 [Pubmed]
  2. Gotze GD, Barreira AK, Maia LC. Crown-root fracture of a lower first primary molar: report of an unusual case. Dental Traumatology. 2008;24(3):377-380 [Pubmed]
  3. Marom T, Russo E, Ben-Yehuda Y, Roth Y. Oropharyngeal injuries in children. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2007;23(12):914-918 [Pubmed]
  4. Soriano EP, Caldas AF Jr, Carvalho MVD, Amorim Filho HA. Prevalence and risk factors related to traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian schoolchildren. Dental Traumatology. 2007;23(4):232-240 [Pubmed]

Sentinel Injuries

  • A large scale case-control study identified that 11% of children later found to be abused had a previous intra-oral injury which was not acted upon 1

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References

  1. Sheets LK, Leach ME, Koszewski IJ, Lessmeier BS, Nugent M, Simpson P. Sentinel injuries in infants evaluated for child physical abuse. Pediatrics. 2013;131(4):701-707. [Pubmed]

 

 

 

 

 

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