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Results

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.

 

Overall results: clinical features of intentional and non-abusive torn frenum in children 

 

Study designs:

  • 18 case study / case series
  • 1 cross-sectional
  • 1 case-control (but not primarily addressing this question)

Age:

  • The majority of children were aged less than five years, where age was given

No study addressed disabled children

Accidental frenal injury was explored in a case series 10

One study included comparative data 11

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References

  1. Cameron JM, Johnson HRM, Camps FE. The battered child syndrome. Medicine, Science and the Law. 1966;6(1):2-21 [Pubmed citation only]
  2. Cordner SM, Burke MP, Dodd MJ, Lynch MJ, Ranson DL, Robertson SD. Issues in child homicides: 11 cases. Legal Medicine. 2001;3(2):95-103 [Pubmed]
  3. Datta S, Stoodley N, Jayawant S, Renowden S, Kemp A. Neuroradiological aspects of subdural haemorrhages. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2005;90(9):947-951 [Pubmed]
  4. Ghahreman A, Bhasin V, Chaseling R, Andrews B, Lang EW. Nonaccidental head injuries in children: a Sydney experience. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2005;103(3 suppl):213-218 [Pubmed]
  5. Gilles EE, Nelson MD Jr. Cerebral complications of nonaccidental head injury in childhood. Pediatric Neurology. 1998;19(2):119-128 [Pubmed]
  6. Grace A, Grace S. Child abuse within the ear, nose and throat. Journal of Otolaryngology. 1987;16(2):108-111 [Pubmed]
  7. Hicks RA, Gaughan DC. Understanding fatal child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect. 1995;19(7):855-863 [Pubmed]
  8. Hill IR, Denham DA, Scholtz CL. Toxocara canis larvae in the brain of a British child. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1985;79(3):351-354 [Pubmed]
  9. Hobbs CJ, Wynne JM. The sexually abused battered child. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1990;65(4): 423-427 [Pubmed]
  10. Kidd AJ, Beattie TF, Campbell-Hewson G. Frenal injury in children is not pathognomic of non-accidental injury. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2010;27(1):52. [Pubmed]
  11. Lopez MR, Abd-Allah S, Deming DD, Piantini R, Young-Snodgrass A, Perkin R, Barcega B, Sheridan-Matney C. Oral, jaw, and neck injury in infants and children: From abusive trauma or intubation? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2014;30(5):305-310 [Pubmed]

  12. Manning SC, Casselbrant M, Lammers D. Otolaryngologic manifestations of child abuse. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 1990;20(1):7-16 [Pubmed]
  13. Morrison AL, Chute D, Radentz S, Golle M, Troncoso JC, Smialek JE. Air bag-associated injury to a child in the front passenger seat. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1998;9(3):218-222 [Pubmed]
  14. Patel F. Artefact in forensic medicine: Childhood iatrogenic oral injury. Police Surgeon. 1992;41;8-9
  15. Phillips VM, van der Heyde Y. Oro-facial trauma in child abuse fatalities. South African Medical Journal. 2006;96(3):213-215 [Pubmed]
  16. Price EA, Rush LR, Perper JA, Bell MD. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related injuries and homicidal blunt abdominal trauma in children. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2000;21(4):307-310 [Pubmed]
  17. Symons A, Rowe P, Romaniuk K. Dental aspects of child abuse: review and case reports. Australian Dental Journal. 1987;32(1):42-47 [Pubmed citation only]
  18. Tate RJ. Facial injuries associated with the battered child syndrome. British Journal of Oral Surgery. 1971;9(1):41-45 [Pubmed citation only]
  19. Thackeray JD. Frena tears and abusive head injury: a cautionary tale. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2007;23(10):735-737 [Pubmed]
  20. Torriani DD, Bonow ML, Fleischmann MD, Muller LT. Traumatic intrusion of primary tooth: follow up until eruption of permanent successor tooth. Dental Traumatology. 2008;24(2):235-238 [Pubmed]

 

Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

 

  • Only one study specifically noted that ‘coloured children’ were disproportionately represented 1
  • No population figures were given by this study 1
  • A further study noted that the ethnicity was representative of the local population 2

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References

  1. Cameron JM, Johnson HRM, Camps FE. The battered child syndrome. Medicine, Science and the Law. 1966;6(1):2-21 [Pubmed citation only]
  2. Lopez MR, Abd-Allah S, Deming DD, Piantini R, Young-Snodgrass A, Perkin R, Barcega B, Sheridan-Matney C. Oral, jaw, and neck injury in infants and children: From abusive trauma or intubation? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2014;30(5):305-310 [Pubmed]

 

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