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Accidental torn frenum

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.

 

Comparative studies of torn frenum

  • One comparative study of 105 children aged less than 3 years examined within 24 of hours of intubation did not demonstrate any non-abusive torn frenum 1

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References

  1. Lopez MR, Abd-Allah S, Deming DD, Piantini R, Young-Snodgrass A, Perkin R, Barcega B, Sheridan-Matney C. Oral, jaw, and neck injury in infants and children: From abusive trauma or intubation? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2014;30(5):305-310 [Pubmed]

Non-comparative accidental torn frenum studies

  • One retrospective case series evaluated children attending the emergency department with facial injury and noted to have a frenal tear 1
  • 21 children with a median age of 19 months were identified (exclusion of abuse rank B-3)
  • Commonest mechanism of injury described was a fall

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References

  1. Kidd AJ, Beattie TF, Campbell-Hewson G. Frenal injury in children is not pathognomic of non-accidental injury. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2010;27(1):52. [Pubmed]

  • Four single case studies were conducted, representing four children 1-4
  • Two cases occurred as a consequence of intubation; one child aged six months, the other 0-10 years 2,3
  • 3.5 year old child fatally injured by an air bag; injuries included torn labial frenum, multiple fractures and intracranial haemorrhages 1
  • 2.5 year old fell from his bike with intrusion of central upper incisor and torn upper labial frenum; lip injury completely healed within 1 week 4
  • A study of 324 children aged 0-10 years undergoing resuscitation and dying of natural causes found a single case of torn labial frenum occurred as a consequence of CPR (noted as absent at onset of CPR, confirmed at autopsy) 3

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References

  1. Morrison AL, Chute D, Radentz S, Golle M, Troncoso JC, Smialek JE. Air bag-associated injury to a child in the front passenger seat. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1998;9(3):218-222 [Pubmed]
  2. Patel F. Artefact in forensic medicine: Childhood iatrogenic oral injury. Police Surgeon. 1992;41;8-9
  3. Price EA, Rush LR, Perper JA, Bell MD. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related injuries and homicidal blunt abdominal trauma in children. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2000;21(4):307-310 [Pubmed]
  4. Torriani DD, Bonow ML, Fleischmann MD, Muller LT. Traumatic intrusion of primary tooth: follow up until eruption of permanent successor tooth. Dental Traumatology. 2008;24(2):235-238 [Pubmed]

 

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