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Other useful references

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


  • Missed physical abuse: of 38 cases of AHT, five had a history of missed diagnosis of AHT, three of which died. There were two cases of missed fractures and one case of missed abuse by shaking. These children presented with fatal abuse 1
  • Spinal injuries co-exist with abusive head trauma (AHT) 2.  29/41 cases with AHT had injuries to the cervical cord, two with cervical spinal injuries alone.  Details of soft tissue and spinal cord injuries are given for all cases
  • Asymptomatic intra-cranial hemorrhage has been described in newborns undergoing MRI imaging. Supratentorial subdural hemorrhage was noted in 46 / 101 infants, a further 20 infants had infratentorial SDH. All had resolved by three months and most children with SDH’s had normal developmental examinations at 24 months 3

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  1. Oral R, Yagmur F, Nashelsky M, Turkmen M, Kirby P. Fatal abusive head trauma cases: consequence of medical staff missing milder forms of physical abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2008;24(12):816-821 [Pubmed]
  2. Brennan LK, Rubin D, Christian CW, Duhaime AC, Mirchandani HG, Rorke-Adams LB. Neck injuries in young pediatric homicide victims. Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics. 2009;3(3):232-239 [Pubmed]
  3. Rooks VJ, Eaton JP, Ruess L, Petermann GW, Keck-Wherley J, Pedersen RC. Prevalence and evolution of intracranial hemorrhage in asymptomatic term infants. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2008;29(6):1082-1089. [Pubmed]


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