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Other useful references

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


  • New techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may have a place in identifying further abnormalities 1
  • Proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may have a role in identifying metabolic abnormalities 2,3
  • The use of apparent diffusion coefficient on MRI may be of value in predicting poor long term neurodevelopmental outcome 4
  • Standards for radiological investigations of suspected non-accidental injury – March 2008 5
  • Revision of radiological standards from the American Academy of Pediatrics.  A number of changes from the previous standards were made 6

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  1. Field AS, Hasan K, Jellison BJ, Arfanakis K, Alexander AL. Diffusion tensor imaging in an infant with traumatic brain swelling. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2003;24(7):1461-1464 [Pubmed]
  2. Haseler LJ, Arcinue E, Danielsen ER, Bluml S, Ross BD. Evidence from proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for a metabolic cascade of neuronal damage in shaken baby syndrome. Pediatrics. 1997;99(1):4-14 [Pubmed]
  3. Makoroff KL, Cecil KM, Care M, Ball WS Jr. Elevated lactate as an early marker of brain injury in inflicted traumatic brain injury. Pediatric Radiology. 2005;35(7):668-676 [Pubmed]
  4. Tanoue K, Aida N, Matsui K. Apparent diffusion coefficient values predict outcomes of abusive head trauma. Acta Paediatrica. 2013;102(8):805-8 [Pubmed]

  5. Standards for radiological investigations of suspected non-accidental injury. Joint document produced by the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. March, 2008 [Link to PDF]
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement: Diagnostic imaging of child abuse. Pediatrics. 2000;105(6):1345-1348 [Pubmed]


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