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Included studies

Which fractures are indicative of abuse?

Included papers

 

  1. Ablin DS, Greenspan A, Reinhart MA. Pelvic injuries in child abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 1992;22(6):454-457 [Pubmed]
  2. Anderson WA. The significance of femoral fractures in children. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1982;11(4):174-177 [Pubmed]
  3. Arkader A, Friedman JE, Warner WC, Jr., Wells L. Complete distal femoral metaphyseal fractures: a harbinger of child abuse before walking age. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 2007;27(7):751-753 [Pubmed]
  4. Baldwin K, Pandya NK, Wolfgruber H, Drummond DS, Hosalkar HS. Femur fractures in the pediatric population: abuse or accidental trauma? Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2011;469(3):798-804 [Pubmed]
  5. Barsness KA, Cha ES, Bensard DD, Calkins CM, Partrick DA, Karrer FM, Strain JD. The positive predictive value of rib fractures as an indicator of nonaccidental trauma in children. Journal of Trauma - Injury Infection & Critical Care. 2003;54(6):1107-1110 [Pubmed]
  6. Beals RK, Tufts E. Fractured femur in infancy: the role of child abuse. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1983;3(5):583-586 [Pubmed]
  7. Billmire ME, Myers PA. Serious head injuries in infants: accident or abuse? Pediatrics. 1985;75(2):340-342 [Pubmed]
  8. Blakemore LC, Loder RT, Hensinger RN. Role of intentional abuse in children 1 to 5 years old with isolated femoral shaft fractures. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1996;16(5):585-588 [Pubmed]
  9. Bode KS, Newton PO. Pediatric nonaccidental trauma thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation: posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation in an 8-month-old boy. Spine. 2007;32(14):E388-E393 [Pubmed]
  10. Bulloch B, Schubert CJ, Brophy PD, Johnson N, Reed MH, Shapiro RA. Cause and clinical characteristics of rib fractures in infants. Pediatrics. 2000;105(4):E48 [Pubmed]
  11. Cadzow SP, Armstrong KL. Rib fractures in infants: red alert! The clinical features, investigations and child protection outcomes. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2000;36(4):322-326 [Pubmed]
  12. Carrion WV, Dormans JP, Drummond DS, Christofersen MR. Circumferential growth plate fracture of the thoracolumbar spine from child abuse. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1996;16(2):210-214 [Pubmed]
  13. Coffey C, Haley K, Hayes J, Groner JI. The risk of child abuse in infants and toddlers with lower extremity injuries. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2005;40(1):120-123 [Pubmed]
  14. Cosway B, Mathura N, Mott A, Bredow M, Fraser J, Rawlinson A, Wei C, Thyagarajan M, Harrison S, Kemp A. Occult rib fractures: Defining the cause. Child Abuse Review. 2013. [Early View - Abstract available from Wiley online library]

  15. Cullen JC. Spinal lesions in battered babies. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1975;57(3):364-366 [Pubmed]
  16. Dalton HJ, Slovis T, Helfer RE, Comstock J, Scheurer S, Riolo S. Undiagnosed abuse in children younger than 3 years with femoral fracture. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1990;144(8):875-878 [Pubmed]
  17. DeLee JC, Wilkins KE, Rogers LF, Rockwood CA. Fracture-separation of the distal humeral epiphysis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1980;62(1):46-51 [Pubmed]
  18. Diamond P, Hansen CM, Christofersen MR. Child abuse presenting as a thoracolumbar spinal fracture dislocation: a case report. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1994;10(2):83-86 [Pubmed]
  19. Dickson RA, Leatherman KD. Spinal injuries in child abuse: case report. The Journal of Trauma. 1978;18(12):811-812 [Pubmed]
  20. Ellerstein NS, Norris KJ. Value of radiologic skeletal survey in assessment of abused children. Pediatrics 1984;74(6):1075-1078 [Pubmed]
  21. Farnsworth CL, Silva PD, Mubarak SJ. Etiology of supracondylar humerus fractures. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1998;18(1):38-42 [Pubmed]
  22. Feldman KW, Avellino AM, Sugar NF, Ellenbogen RG. Cervical spinal cord injury in abused children. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2008;24(4):222-227 [Pubmed]
  23. Feldman KW, Brewer DK. Child abuse, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and rib fractures. Pediatrics. 1984;73(3):339-342 [Pubmed]
  24. Forlin E, Guille JT, Kumar SJ, Rhee KJ. Transepiphyseal fractures of the neck of the femur in very young children. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1992;12(2):164-168 [Pubmed]
  25. Gabos PG, Tuten HR, Leet A, Stanton RP. Fracture-dislocation of the lumbar spine in an abused child. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 1):473-477 [Pubmed citation only]
  26. Garcia VF, Gotschall CS, Eichelberger MR, Bowman LM. Rib fractures in children: a marker of severe trauma. The Journal of Trauma. 1990;30(6):695-700 [Pubmed]
  27. Gille P, Bonneville JF, Francois JY, Aubert D, Peltre G, Canal JP. Fracture des pédicules de l'axis chez un nourrisson battu (Fractures of axis pedicles in battered infant). Chirurgie Pediatrique. 1980;21(5):343-344. [Pubmed]
  28. Gipson CL, Tobias JD. Flail chest in a neonate resulting from nonaccidental trauma. Southern Medical Journal. 2006;99(5):536-538 [Pubmed]
  29. Gross RH, Stranger M. Causative factors responsible for femoral fractures in infants and young children. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1983;3(3):341-343 [Pubmed]
  30. Haney SB, Boos SC, Kutz TJ, Starling SP. Transverse fracture of the distal femoral metadiaphysis: a plausible accidental mechanism. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2009;25(12):841-844 [Pubmed]
  31. Hechter S, Huyer D, Manson D. Sternal fractures as a manifestation of abusive injury in children. Pediatric Radiology. 2002;32(12):902-906 [Pubmed]
  32. Hinton RY, Lincoln A, Crockett MM, Sponseller P, Smith G. Fractures of the femoral shaft in children. Incidence, mechanisms, and sociodemographic risk factors. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American volume). 1999;81(4):500-509 [Pubmed]
  33. Hiss J, Kahana T. The medicolegal implications of bilateral cranial fractures in infants. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 1995;38(1):32-34 [Pubmed]
  34. Hoskote AU, Martin K, Hormbrey P, Burns EC. Fractures in infants: one in four is non-accidental. Child Abuse Review. 2003;12(6):384-391 [Abstract from Ingenta Connect]
  35. Hui C, Joughin E, Goldstein S, Cooper N, Harder J, Kiefer G, Parsons D, Howard J. Femoral fractures in children younger than three years: the role of nonaccidental injury. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2008;28(3):297-302 [Pubmed]
  36. Jaffe AC, Lasser DH. Multiple metatarsal fractures in child abuse. Pediatrics. 1977;60(4 Pt 2):642-643 [Pubmed citation only]
  37. Johnson K, Chapman S, Hall CM. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 2004; 34(8):620-623 [Pubmed]
  38. Jones JC, Feldman KW, Bruckner JD. Child abuse in infants with proximal physeal injuries of the femur. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2004;20(3):157-161 [Pubmed]
  39. Kleinman PK, Marks SC Jr, Richmond JM, Blackbourne BD. Inflicted skeletal injury: a postmortem radiologic-histopathologic study in 31 infants. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1995;165(3):647-650 [Pubmed]
  40. Kleinman PK, Marks SC Jr. A regional approach to classic metaphyseal lesions in abused infants: the distal tibia. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996:166(5);1207-1212 [Pubmed]
  41. Kleinman PK, Marks SC Jr. A regional approach to the classic metaphyseal lesion in abused infants: the proximal humerus. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996;167(6):1399-1403 [Pubmed]
  42. Kleinman PK, Marks SC Jr. A regional approach to the classic metaphyseal lesion in abused infants: the proximal tibia. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996;166(2):421-426 [Pubmed]
  43. Kleinman PK, Marks SC Jr. A regional approach to the classic metaphyseal lesion in abused infants: the distal femur. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1998;170(1):43-47 [Pubmed]
  44. Kleinman PK, Morris NB, Makris J, Moles RL, Kleinman PL. Yield of radiographic skeletal surveys for detection of hand, foot, and spine fractures in suspected child abuse. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2013;200(3):641-4 [Pubmed]

  45. Kleinman PK, Perez-Rossello JM, Newton AW, Feldman HA, Kleinman PL. Prevalence of the classic metaphyseal lesion in infants at low versus high risk for abuse. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2011;197(4):1005-1008 [Pubmed]
  46. Kleinman PK, Shelton YA. Hangman's fracture in an abused infant: imaging features. Pediatric Radiology. 1997;27(9):776-777 [Pubmed]
  47. Kowal-Vern A, Paxton TP, Ros SP, Lietz H, Fitzgerald M, Gamelli RL. Fractures in the under-3-year-old age cohort. Clinical Pediatrics. 1992;31(11):653-659 [Pubmed]
  48. Leventhal JM, Thomas SA, Rosenfield NS, Markowitz RI. Fractures in young children. Distinguishing child abuse from unintentional injuries. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1993;147(1):87-92 [Pubmed]
  49. Lindberg DM, Harper NS, Laskey AL, Berger RP; ExSTRA Investigators. Prevalence of abusive fractures of the hands, feet, spine, or pelvis on skeletal survey: perhaps "uncommon" is more common than suggested. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2013;29(1):26-9 [Pubmed]

  50. Loder RT, Feinberg JR. Orthopaedic injuries in children with nonaccidental trauma: demographics and incidence from the 2000 kids' inpatient database. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 2007;27(4):421-426 [Pubmed] (Erratum in Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. 2008;28(6):699)
  51. McClelland CQ, Heiple KG. Fractures in the first year of life. A diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1982;136(1):26-29 [Pubmed]
  52. Merten DF, Kirks DR, Ruderman RJ. Occult humeral epiphyseal fracture in battered infants. Pediatric Radiology. 1981;10(3):151-154 [Pubmed]
  53. Meservy CJ, Towbin R, McLaurin RL, Myers PA, Ball W. Radiographic characteristics of skull fractures resulting from child abuse. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1987;149(1):173-175 [Pubmed]
  54. Ng CS, Hall CM. Costochondral junction fractures and intra-abdominal trauma in non-accidental injury (child abuse). Pediatric Radiology. 1998;28(9):671-676 [Pubmed]
  55. Nimkin K, Kleinman PK, Teeger S, Spevak MR. Distal humeral physeal injuries in child abuse: MR imaging and ultrasonography findings. Pediatric Radiology. 1995;25(7):562-565 [Pubmed]
  56. Nimkin K, Spevak MR, Kleinman PK. Fractures of the hands and feet in child abuse: imaging and pathological features. Radiology. 1997;203(1):233-236 [Pubmed]
  57. Ogden JA, Lee KE, Rudicel SA, Pelker RR. Proximal femoral epiphysiolysis in the neonate. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1984;4(3):285-292 [Pubmed]
  58. Oral R, Rahhal R, Elshershari H, Menezes AH. Intentional avulsion fracture of the second cervical vertebra in a hypotonic child. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2006;22(5):352-354 [Pubmed]
  59. Pandya NK, Baldwin K, Wolfgruber H, Christian CW, Drummond DS, Hosalkar HS. Child abuse and orthopaedic injury patterns: analysis at a level I pediatric trauma center. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2009;29(6):618-625 [Pubmed]
  60. Pandya NK, Baldwin KD, Wolfgruber H, Drummond DS, Hosalkar HS. Humerus fractures in the pediatric population: an algorithm to identify abuse. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics: Part B. 2010;19(6):535-541 [Pubmed]
  61. Perez-Rossello JM, Connolly SA, Newton AW, Thomason M, Jenny C, Sugar NF, Kleinman PK. Pubic ramus radiolucencies in infants: the good, the bad, and the indeterminate. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2008;190(6):1481-1486 [Pubmed]
  62. Prendergast NC, de Roux SJ, Adsay NV. Non-accidental pediatric pelvic fracture: a case report. Pediatric Radiology. 1998;28(5):344-346 [Pubmed]
  63. Rao KS, Hyde I. Digital lesions in non-accidental injuries to children. British Journal of Radiology. 1984;57(675):259-260 [Pubmed citation only]
  64. Reece RM, Sege R. Childhood head injuries: accidental or inflicted? Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2000;154(1):11-15 [Pubmed]
  65. Renard M, Tridon P, Kuhnast M, Renauld JM, Dollfus P. Three unusual cases of spinal cord injury in childhood. Paraplegia. 1978;16(1):130-134 [Pubmed]
  66. Rex C, Kay PR. Features of femoral fractures in nonaccidental injury. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2000;20(3):411-413 [Pubmed]
  67. Rooks VJ, Sisler C, Burton B. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases. Pediatric Radiology. 1998;28(3):193-195 [Pubmed]
  68. Rosenberg N, Bottenfield G. Fractures in infants: a sign of child abuse. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1982;11(4):178-180 [Pubmed]
  69. Scherl SA, Miller L, Lively N, Russinoff S, Sullivan CM, Tornetta 3rd. Accidental and nonaccidental femur fractures in children. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2000;(376):96-105 [Pubmed]
  70. Schlievert R. Infant mandibular fractures: are you considering child abuse? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2006;22(3):181-183 [Pubmed]
  71. Schweich P, Fleisher G. Rib fractures in children. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1985;1(4):187-189 [Pubmed]
  72. Schwend RM, Werth C, Johnston A. Femur shaft fractures in toddlers and young children: rarely from child abuse. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2000;20(4):475-481 [Pubmed]
  73. Shaw BA, Murphy KM, Shaw A, Oppenheim WL, Myracle MR. Humerus shaft fractures in young children: accident or abuse? Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1997;17(3):293-297 [Pubmed]
  74. Siegel MB, Wetmore RF, Potsic WP, Handler SD, Tom LW. Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. 1991;117(5):533-536 [Pubmed]
  75. Sieradzki JP, Sarwark JF. Thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation in child abuse: case report, closed reduction technique and review of the literature. Pediatric Neurosurgery.2008;44(3):253-257 [Pubmed]
  76. Skellern CY, Wood DO, Murphy A, Crawford M. Non-accidental fractures in infants: risk of further abuse. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2000;36(6):590-592 [Pubmed]
  77. Smeets AJ, Robben SG, Meradji M. Sonographically detected costo-chondral dislocation in an abused child. A new sonographic sign to the radiological spectrum of child abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 1990;20(7):566-567 [Pubmed]
  78. Smith FW, Gilday DL, Ash JM, Green MD. Unsuspected costo-vertebral fractures demonstrated by bone scanning in the child abuse syndrome. Pediatric Radiology. 1980;10(2):103-106 [Pubmed]
  79. Starling SP, Heller RM, Jenny C. Pelvic fractures in infants as a sign of physical abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2002;26(5):475-480 [Pubmed]
  80. Stewart G, Meert K, Rosenberg N. Trauma in infants less than three months of age. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1993;9(4):199-201 [Pubmed]
  81. Strait RT, Seigel RM, Shapiro RA. Humeral fractures without obvious etiologies in children less than 3 years of age: when is it abuse? Pediatrics. 1995;96(4 Pt 1):667-671 [Pubmed]
  82. Strouse PJ, Owings CL. Fractures of the first rib in child abuse. Radiology. 1995;197(3):763-765 [Pubmed]
  83. Thomas PS. Rib fractures in infancy. Annales de Radiologie. 1977;20(1):115-122 [Pubmed]
  84. Thomas SA, Rosenfield NS, Leventhal JM, Markovitz RI. Long-bone fractures in young children: distinguishing accidental injuries from child abuse. Pediatrics. 1991;88(3):471-476 [Pubmed]
  85. Tran B, Silvera M, Newton A, Kleinman PK. Inflicted T12 fracture-dislocation: CT/MRI correlation and mechanistic implications. Pediatric Radiology. 2007;37(11):1171-1173 [Pubmed]
  86. Wellington P, Bennet GC. Fractures of the femur in childhood. Injury. 1987;18(2):103-104 [Pubmed]
  87. Worlock P, Stower M, Barbor P. Patterns of fractures in accidental and non-accidental injury in children: a comparative study. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 1986;293(6539):100-102 [Pubmed]

 

Radiological dating of fractures in children

Included papers

 

  1. Cumming WA. Neonatal skeletal fractures. Birth trauma or child abuse? Journal of the Canadian Association of Radiologists. 1979;30(1):30-33 [Pubmed]
  2. Halliday KE, Broderick NJ, Somers JM, Hawkes R. Dating fractures in infants. Clinical Radiology. 2011;66(11):1049-1054 [Pubmed]
  3. Islam O, Sobeleski D, Symons S, Davidson LK, Ashworth MA, Babyn P. Development and duration of radiographic signs of bone healing in children. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2000;175(1):75-78 [Pubmed]
  4. Prosser I, Lawson Z, Evans A, Harrison S, Morris S, Maguire S, Kemp AM. A timetable for the radiologic features of fracture healing in young children. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2012;198(5):1014-1020 [Pubmed]

  5. Sanchez TR, Nguyen H, Palacios W, Doherty M, Coulter K. Retrospective evaluation and dating of non-accidental rib fractures in infants. Clinical Radiology. 2013;68(8):e467-e471 [Pubmed]

  6. Yeo LI, Reed MH. Staging of healing of femoral fractures in children. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal. 1994;45(1):16-19 [Pubmed]

 

What radiological investigations should be performed to identify fractures in suspected child abuse?

Included papers

 

  1. Ablin DS, Greenspan A, Reinhart MA. Pelvic injuries in child abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 1992;22(6):454-457 [Pubmed]
  2. Anilkumar A, Fender LJ, Broderick NJ, Somers JM, Halliday KE. The role of the follow-up chest radiograph in suspected non-accidental injury. Pediatric Radiology. 2006;36(3):216-218 [Pubmed]
  3. Barber I, Perez-Rossello JM, Wilson CR, Silvera MV, Kleinman PK. Prevalence and relevance of pediatric spinal fractures in suspected child abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 2013;43(11):1507-15 [Pubmed]

  4. Belfer RA, Klein BL, Orr L. Use of the skeletal survey in the evaluation of child maltreatment. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2001;19(2):122-124 [Pubmed]
  5. Bennett BL, Chua MS, Care M, Kachelmeyer A, Mahabee-Gittens M. Retrospective review to determine the utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse evaluations when the initial skeletal survey is normal. BMC Research Notes. 2011;12(4):354. [Pubmed]

  6. Cadzow SP, Armstrong KL. Rib fractures in infants: red alert! The clinical features, investigations and child protection outcomes. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2000;36(4):322-326 [Pubmed]
  7. Carrion WV, Dormans JP, Drummond DS, Christofersen MR. Circumferential growth plate fracture of the thoracolumbar spine from child abuse. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 1996;16(2):210-214 [Pubmed]
  8. Cohen RA, Kaufman RA, Myers PA, Towbin RB. Cranial computed tomography in the abused child with head injury. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1986;146(1):97-102 [Pubmed]
  9. Conway JJ, Collins M, Tanz RR, Radkowski MA, Anandappa E, Hernandez R, Freeman EL. The role of bone scintigraphy in detecting child abuse. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 1993;23(4):321-333 [Pubmed]
  10. Curcoy Barcenilla AI, Trenchs Sainz de la Maza V, Pou Fernandez J. [Utility of bone scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of child maltreatment] [Spanish]. Anales de Pediatria. 2006;65(1):83-84 [Pubmed]
  11. Day F, Clegg S, McPhillips M, Mok J. A retrospective case series of skeletal surveys in children with suspected non-accidental injury. Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine. 2006;13(2):55-59 [Pubmed]
  12. Deye KP, Berger RP, Lindberg DM; ExSTRA Investigators. Occult abusive injuries in infants with apparently isolated skull fractures. Journal of Trauma & Acute Care Surgery. 2013;74(6):1553-1558 [Pubmed]

  13. Diamond P, Hansen CM, Christofersen MR. Child abuse presenting as a thoracolumbar spinal fracture dislocation: a case report. Pediatric Emergency Care. 1994;10(2):83-86 [Pubmed]
  14. Drubach LA, Johnston PR, Newton AW, Perez-Rossello JM, Grant FD, Kleinman PK. Skeletal trauma in child abuse: detection with 18F-NaF PET. Radiology. 2010;255(1):173-181 [Pubmed]

  15. Duffy SO, Squires J, Fromkin JB, Berger RP. Use of skeletal surveys to evaluate for physical abuse: analysis of 703 consecutive skeletal surveys. Pediatrics. 2011;127(1):e47-e52 [Pubmed]
  16. Ellerstein NS, Norris KJ. Value of radiologic skeletal survey in assessment of abused children. Pediatrics 1984;74(6):1075-1078 [Pubmed]
  17. Eltermann T, Beer M, Girschick HJ. Magnetic resonance imaging in child abuse. Journal of Child Neurology. 2007;22(2):170-175 [Pubmed]
  18. Frye TR, Shores RM, Slovis TL, Young LW, Helfer RE. Radiological case of the month. Child abuse. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1984;138(3):323-324 [Pubmed]
  19. Gabos PG, Tuten HR, Leet A, Stanton RP. Fracture-dislocation of the lumbar spine in an abused child. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 1):473-477 [Pubmed citation only]
  20. Haase GM, Ortiz VN, Sfakianakis GN, Morse TS. The value of radionuclide bone scanning in the early recognition of deliberate child abuse. Journal of Trauma. 1980;20(10):873-875 [Pubmed citation only]
  21. Hansen KK, Campbell KA. How useful are skeletal surveys in the second year of life? Child Abuse and Neglect. 2009;33(5):278-281 [Pubmed citation only]
  22. Hansen KK, Prince JS, Nixon GW. Oblique chest views as a routine part of skeletal surveys performed for possible physical abuse--is this practice worthwhile? Child Abuse and Neglect. 2008;32(1):155-159 [Pubmed]
  23. Hansen M, Weltzien A, Blum J, Botterill NJ, Rommens PM. Complete distal humeral epiphyseal separation indicating a battered child syndrome: a case report. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. 2008;128(9):967-972 [Pubmed]
  24. Harlan SR, Nixon GW, Campbell KA, Hansen K, Prince JS. Follow-up skeletal surveys for nonaccidental trauma: can a more limited survey be performed? Pediatric Radiology. 2009;39(9):962-968 [Pubmed]
  25. Harper NS, Eddleman S, Lindberg DM; ExSTRA Investigators. The utility of follow-up skeletal surveys in child abuse. Pediatrics. 2013;131(3):e672-e678 [Pubmed]

  26. Hicks RA, Stolfi A. Skeletal surveys in children with burns caused by child abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2007;23(5):308-313 [Pubmed]
  27. Ingram JD, Connell J, Hay TC, Strain JD, Mackenzie T. Oblique radiographs of the chest in nonaccidental trauma. Emergency Radiology. 2000;7(1):42-46 [Abstract from Springer Link]
  28. Jaffe AC, Lasser DH. Multiple metatarsal fractures in child abuse. Pediatrics. 1977;60(4 Pt 2):642-643 [Pubmed citation only]
  29. Jaudes PK. Comparison of radiography and radionuclide bone scanning in the detection of child abuse. Pediatrics. 1984;73(2):166-168 [Pubmed]
  30. Jha P, Stein-Wexler R, Coulter K, Seibert A, Li CS, Wootton-Gorges SL. Optimizing bone surveys performed for suspected non-accidental trauma with attention to maximizing diagnostic yield while minimizing radiation exposure: utility of pelvic and lateral radiographs. Pediatric Radiology. 2013;43(6):668-72 [Pubmed]

  31. Johnson K, Chapman S, Hall CM. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse. Pediatric Radiology. 2004; 34(8):620-623 [Pubmed]
  32. Karmazyn B, Duhn RD, Jennings SG, Wanner MR, Tahir B, Hibbard R, Hicks R. Long bone fracture detection in suspected child abuse: contribution of lateral views. Pediatric Radiology. 2012;42(4):463-469 [Pubmed]
  33. Karmazyn B, Lewis ME, Jennings SG, Hibbard RA, Hicks RA. The prevalence of uncommon fractures on skeletal surveys performed to evaluate for suspected abuse in 930 children: should practice guidelines change? American Journal of Roentgenology. 2011;197(1):W159-W163 [Pubmed]
  34. Kelloff J, Hulett R, Spivey M. Acute rib fracture diagnosis in an infant by US: a matter of child protection. Pediatric Radiology. 2009;39(1):70-72 [Pubmed]
  35. Kleinhans E, Kentrup H, Alzen G, Skopnik H, Bull U. [Falsch-negatives skelett-szintigramm bei einer biparietalen schadelfraktur beim "Battered Child"-Syndrom] [German] Falsely negative bone scintigram in a case of a Battered-Child Syndrome with biparietal skull fractures. Nuklearmedizin (Stuttg) 1993;32(4):206-207 [Pubmed]
  36. Kleinman PK, Morris NB, Makris J, Moles RL, Kleinman PL. Yield of radiographic skeletal surveys for detection of hand, foot, and spine fractures in suspected child abuse. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2013;200(3):641-4 [Pubmed]

  37. Kleinman PK, Nimkin K, Spevak MR, Rayder SM, Madansky DL, Shelton YA, Patterson MM. Follow-up skeletal surveys in suspected child abuse. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1996;167(4):893-896 [Pubmed]
  38. Laskey AL, Stump TE, Hicks RA, Smith JL. Yield of skeletal surveys in children < 18 months of age presenting with isolated skull fractures. Journal of Pediatrics. 2013;162(1):86-89. [Pubmed]

  39. Leventhal JM, Thomas SA, Rosenfield NS, Markowitz RI. Fractures in young children. Distinguishing child abuse from unintentional injuries. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1993;147(1):87-92 [Pubmed]
  40. Lindberg DM, Blood EA, Campbell KA, Laskey AL, Berger RP; Examining Siblings to Recognize Abuse Study Group. Predictors of screening and injury in contacts of physically abused children. Journal of Pediatrics. 2013;163(3):730-735. e1-e3 [Pubmed]

  41. Lindberg D, Sharpio R, Laskey A, Pallin, D, Blood E, Berger R, ExSTRA Investigators. Prevalence of abusive injuries in siblings and household contacts of physically abused children. Pediatrics. 2012;130(2):193-201. [Pubmed]

  42. Mandelstam SA, Cook D, Fitzgerald M, Ditchfield MR. Complementary use of radiological skeletal survey and bone scintigraphy in detection of bony injuries in suspected child abuse. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003;88(5):387-390 [Pubmed]
  43. Markowitz RI, Hubbard AM, Harty MP, Bellah RD, Kessler A, Meyer JS. Sonography of the knee in normal and abused infants. Pediatric Radiology. 1993;23(4):264-267 [Pubmed]
  44. Merten DF, Kirks DR, Ruderman RJ. Occult humeral epiphyseal fracture in battered infants. Pediatric Radiology. 1981;10(3):151-154 [Pubmed]
  45. Merten DF, Radlowski MA, Leonidas JC. The abused child: a radiological reappraisal. Radiology. 1983;146(2):377-381 [Pubmed]
  46. Nimkin K, Kleinman PK, Teeger S, Spevak MR. Distal humeral physeal injuries in child abuse: MR imaging and ultrasonography findings. Pediatric Radiology. 1995;25(7):562-565 [Pubmed]
  47. Nimkin K, Spevak MR, Kleinman PK. Fractures of the hands and feet in child abuse: imaging and pathological features. Radiology. 1997;203(1):233-236 [Pubmed]
  48. Olesen T, Egeblad M, Dige-Petersen H, Ahlgren P, Nielsen AM, Vesterdal J. Somatic manifestations in children suspected of having been maltreated. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. 1988;77(1):154-160 [Pubmed]
  49. Perez-Rossello JM, Connolly SA, Newton AW, Zou KH, Kleinman PK. Whole-body MRI in suspected infant abuse. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2010;195(3):744-750 [Pubmed]
  50. Pickett WJ, Faleski EJ, Chacko A, Jarrett RV. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children. Southern Medical Journal. 1983;76(2):207-212 [Pubmed]
  51. Rangel EL, Cook BS, Bennett BL, Shebesta K, Ying J, Falcone RA. Eliminating disparity in evaluation for abuse in infants with head injury: use of a screening guideline. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2009;44(6):1229-1234; discussion 1234-5 [Pubmed]
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Does closed chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in children?

Included papers

 

 N.B. References 14 & 15 are related to reference 10

 

  1. Betz P, Liebhardt E. Rib fractures in children - resuscitation or child abuse? International Journal of Legal Medicine. 1994;106(4):215-218 [Pubmed]
  2. Boz B, Erdur B, Acar K, Ergin A, Turkcuer I, Ergin N. [Frequency of skeletal chest injuries associated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation: forensic autopsy]. [Turkish]. Ulusal Travma ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi [Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery]. 2008;14(3):216-220 [Pubmed]
  3. Bush CM, Jones JS, Cohle SD, Johnson H. Pediatric injuries from cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1996;28(1):40-44 [Pubmed]
  4. Cosway B, Mathura N, Mott A, Bredow M, Fraser J, Rawlinson A, Wei C, Thyagarajan M, Harrison S, Kemp A. Occult rib fractures: Defining the cause. Child Abuse Review. 2013. [Early View - Abstract available from Wiley online library]

  5. Feldman KW, Brewer DK. Child abuse, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and rib fractures. Pediatrics. 1984;73(3):339-342 [Pubmed]
  6. Lin YR, Li CJ, Wu TK, Chang YJ, Lai SC, Liu TA, Hsiao MH, Chou CC, Chang CF. Post-resuscitative clinical features in the first hour after achieving sustained ROSC predict the duration of survival in children with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2010;81(4):410-417 [Pubmed]
  7. Matshes EW, Lew EO. Do Resuscitation-Related Injuries Kill Infants and Children? American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2010;31(2):178-185 [Pubmed]
  8. Matshes EW, Lew EO. Two-handed cardiopulmonary resuscitation can cause rib fractures in infants. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2010;31(4):303-307 [Pubmed]
  9. Price EA, Rush LR, Perper JA, Bell MD. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related injuries and homicidal blunt abdominal trauma in children. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 2000;21(4):307-310 [Pubmed]
  10. Reyes JA, Somers GR, Taylor GP, Chiasson DA. Increased incidence of CPR-related rib fractures in infants - is it related to changes in CPR technique? Resuscitation. 2011;82(5):545-548 [Pubmed]
  11. Ryan MP, Young SJ, Wells DL. Do resuscitation attempts in children who die, cause injury? Emergency Medicine Journal. 2003;20(1):10-12 [Pubmed]
  12. Spevak MR, Kleinman PK, Belanger PL, Primack C, Richmond JM. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and rib fractures in infants. A postmortem radiologic-pathologic study. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1994;272(8):617-618 [Pubmed]
  13. Weber MA, Risdon RA, Offiah AC, Malone M, Sebire NJ. Rib fractures identified at post-mortem examination in sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI). Forensic Science International. 2009;189(1-3):75-81 [Pubmed]
  14. Martin, P. S.;Jones, M. D.;Maguire, S. A.;Theobald, P. S.;Kemp, A. M. Increased incidence of CPR-related rib fractures in infants - Is it related to changes in CPR technique? Resuscitation. 2012;83(4):E109-E109 [Pubmed]

  15. Reyes, J. A.;Somers, G. R.;Taylor, G. P.;Chiasson, D. A. Response to Letter: Increased incidence of CPR-related rib fractures in infants - Is it related to changes in CPR technique? Resuscitation.2012;83(4):E111-E111 [Abstract available from Science Direct]

 

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