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Other useful references

A large study of children presenting with Apparent Life Threatening Events (ALTEs), unexplained deaths or Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). This study included infants with possible suffocation but did not meet the inclusion criteria for this review 1


A study of children with fatal abuse of whom 11 experienced asphyxia 2


American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendation for features which may indicate intentional asphyxiation 3


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  1. Truman TL, Ayoub CC. Considering suffocatory abuse and Munchausen by proxy in the evaluation of children experiencing apparent life-threatening events and sudden infant death syndrome. Child Maltreatment. 2002;7(2):138-148 [Pubmed]

  2. Meadow R. Unnatural sudden infant death. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1999;80(1):7-14 [Pubmed]

  3. Hymel KP. Distinguishing sudden infant death syndrome from child abuse fatalities. Pediatrics. 2006;118(1):421-427 [Pubmed]


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