The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.
Two studies included case series of asphyxiated infants 1,2
One series included live children who were observed on covert video surveillance to have inflicted asphyxiation of whom eight had co-existent epistaxis 2
Clinical features of these children included pallor, cyanosis, respiratory distress, altered heart rate, and seizure
A series of fatal asphyxiation and sudden infant death included four infants with epistaxis. All the children had previously presented with Apparent Life Threatening Events (ALTEs) 1
Post mortem features in asphyxiated children included intra-pulmonary haemorrhages and intrathoracic petechiae (the later were also seen in non-asphyxiated children)
Becroft DM, Thompson JM, Mitchell EA. Nasal and intrapulmonary haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2001;85(2):116-120 [Pubmed]
Southall DP, Plunkett MC, Banks MW, Falkov AF, Samuels MP. Covert video recordings of life-threatening child abuse: lessons for child protection. Pediatrics. 1997;100(5):735-760 [Pubmed]