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Other useful references

The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


 Traditional remedies

  • Three cases of extensive photodermatitis to both hands due to lime juice and sun exposure 1. Phytophotodermatitis has also been described following the application of a fig-leave decoction believed to heal developmental retardation (Turkey) 2
  • Some traditional remedies are recognised as being used and potentially causing burns to children.  These include the use of garlic 3, although no primary studies relating to its use in children have been identified to date

 Accidental burns mimicking abuse

  • A burn to the lateral thigh in an eleven month old infant as a consequence of an over-heated plastic car seat 4
  • Alkaline caustic burn sustained by a child hugging the father who was covered with cement dust 5


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  1. Mill J, Wallis B, Cuttle L, Mott J, Oakley A, Kimble R. Phytophotodermatitis: case reports of children presenting with blistering after preparing lime juice. Burns. 2008;34(5):731-733 [Pubmed]
  2. Abali AE, Aka M, Aydogan C, Haberal M. Burns or phytophotodermatitis, abuse or neglect: confusing aspects of skin lesions caused by the superstitious use of fig leaves. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 2012;33(6):e309-e312 [Pubmed]

  3. Al-Qattan MM, Al-Zahrani KA. A review of burns related to traditions, social habits, religious activities, festivals and traditional medical practices. Burns. 2009;35(4):476-481 [Pubmed]
  4. Moharir M, Niec A, Wekerle C. Burn injury from car seat in an 11-month-old infant. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2012;17(9):495-497 [Abstract from Paediatrics and Child Health]

  5. Dressler DP, Hozid JL. Thermal injury and child abuse: the medical evidence dilemma. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation. 2001;22(2):180-185 [Pubmed]


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