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Included studies

What are the clinical and social features that distinguish intentional and accidental scalds in children?

Included papers

 

  1. Ayoub C, Pfeifer D. Burns as a manifestation of child abuse and neglect. American Journal of Diseases in Children. 1979;133(9):910-914 [Pubmed]
  2. Bajanowski T, Verhoff MA, Wingenfeld L, Püschel K. Forensische Pädopathologie – Tod nach Verbrühung. Drei Fälle mit sehr unterschiedlichen Kausalbedingungen [German] [Forensic paedopathology – death by scalding. Three cases with very different causal conditions]. Rechtsmedizin. 2007;17(4):218-222 [Abstract from SpringerLink]
  3. Brinkmann B, Banaschak S. Verbrühungen bei einem Kleinkind: Unfall oder Kindesmißhandlung? Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde. 1998;146(12):1186-1191 [Abstract from SpringerLink]
  4. Caniano DA, Beaver BL, Boles ET. Child abuse. An update on surgical management in 256 cases. Annals of Surgery. 1986;203(2):219-224 [Pubmed]
  5. Daria S, Sugar NF, Feldman KW, Boos SC, Benton SA, Ornstein A. Into hot water head first: distribution of intentional and unintentional immersion burns. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2004;20(5):302-310 [Pubmed]
  6. Deitch EA, Staats M. Child abuse through burning. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 1982;3(2):89-94 [Abstract from Journal of Burn Care & Research]
  7. Dressler DP, Hozid JL. Thermal injury and child abuse: the medical evidence dilemma. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation. 2001;22(2):180-185 [Pubmed]
  8. Durtschi MB, Kohler TR, Finley A, Heimbach DM. Burn injury in infants and young children. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics. 1980;150(5):651-656 [Pubmed]
  9. Galleno H, Oppenheim WL. The battered child syndrome revisited. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1982;162:11-19 [Pubmed]
  10. Grosfeld JL, Ballantine TVN. Surgical aspects of child abuse (trauma-X). Pediatric Annals. 1976;5(10):106-120 [Pubmed citation only]
  11. Hashimoto I, Nakanishi H, Nagae H, Yamano M, Takeuchi N, Nameda Y, Arase S, Nii M, Taguchi Y, Kuroda Y. Child abuse-related burns: Two cases of severe burns related to child abuse syndrome. Japanese Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1995;38:149-154
  12. Hayek SN, Wibbenmeyer LA, Kealey LDH, Williams IM, Oral R, Onwuameze O, Light TD, Latenser BA, Lewis RW 2nd, Kealey GP. The efficacy of hair and urine toxicology screening on the detection of child abuse by burning. Journal of Burn Care and Research. 2009;30(4):587-592 [Pubmed]
  13. Heaton PA. The pattern of burn injuries in childhood. New Zealand Medical Journal. 1989;102(879):584-586 [Pubmed]
  14. Heredea LS. Diagnostic problems of burns produced by physical abuse towards children. Archives of the Balkan Medical Union. 2008;43(3):171-176 [Abstract from Archives of the Balkan Medical Union]
  15. Hicks RA, Stolfi A. Skeletal surveys in children with burns caused by child abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2007;23(5):308-313 [Pubmed]
  16. Hobbs CJ. When are burns not accidental? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1986;61(4):357-361 [Pubmed]
  17. Holter JC, Friedman SB. Etiology and management of severely burned children. American Journal of Diseases in Children. 1969;118(5):680-686 [Pubmed citation only]
  18. Leonardi DF, Vedovato JW, Werlang PM, Torres OM. Child burn: accident, neglect or abuse. A case report. Burns. 1999;25(1):69-71 [Pubmed]
  19. Lowell G, Quinlan K, Gottlieb LJ. Preventing unintentional scald burns: moving beyond tap water. Pediatrics. 2008;122(4):799-804 [Pubmed]
  20. Lung RJ, Miller SH, Davis TS, Graham WPI. Recognizing burn injuries as child abuse. American Family Physician. 1977;15(4):134-135 [Pubmed citation only]
  21. Ofodile F, Norris J, Garnes A. Burns and child abuse. The East African Medical Journal. 1979;56(1):26-29 [Pubmed citation only]
  22. Ojo P, Palmer J, Garvey R, Atweh N, Fidler P. Pattern of burns in child abuse. American Surgeon. 2007;73(3):253-255 [Pubmed]
  23. Patscheider H. Zwei ungewöhnliche Fälle von tödlicher Kindesmißhandlung [German] [Two unusual cases of fatal child abuse]. Archiv für Kriminologie.1975;155(1):19-27 [Pubmed citation only]
  24. Phillips PS, Pickrell E, Morse TS. Intentional burning: a severe form of child abuse. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians. 1974;3(6):388-390 [Abstract from ScienceDirect]
  25. Purdue GF, Hunt JL, Prescott PR. Child abuse by burning — an index of suspicion. The Journal of Trauma. 1988;28(2):221-224 [Pubmed]
  26. Russo S, Taff ML, Mirchandani HG, Monforte JR, Spitz WU. Scald burns complicated by isopropyl alcohol intoxication: a case of fatal child abuse. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1986;7(1):81-83 [Pubmed]
  27. Schlievert R. Child abuse or mimic? Is there a medical explanation? Consultant. 2004;44:1160-1161
  28. Sheridan RL. Recognition and management of hot liquid aspiration in children. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1996;27(1):89-91 [Pubmed]
  29. Stratman E, Melski J. Scald abuse. Archives of Dermatology. 2002;138(3):318-320 [Pubmed citation only]
  30. Titus MO, Baxter AL, Starling SP. Accidental scald burns in sinks. Pediatrics. 2003;111(2):e191-e194 [Pubmed]
  31. Wibbenmeyer L, Liao J, Heard J, Kealey L, Kealey G, Oral R. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 2014;35(5):374-381 [Pubmed]

  32. Yeoh C, Nixon JW, Dickson W, Kemp A, Sibert JR. Patterns of scald injuries. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1994;71(2):156-158 [Pubmed]
  33. Zaloga WF, Collins KA. Pediatric homicides related to burn injury: a retrospective review at the Medical University of South Carolina. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2006;51(2):396-399 [Pubmed]

What are the features of intentional non-scald burns?

Included papers

 

  1. Alexander RC, Surrell JA, Cohle SD. Microwave oven burns to children: an unusual manifestation of child abuse. Pediatrics. 1987;79(2):255-260 [Pubmed]
  2. Baron S, Moss C. Images in paediatrics: Caustic burn caused by potassium permanganate. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2003;88(2):96 [Pubmed citation only]
  3. Caniano DA, Beaver BL, Boles ET. Child abuse. An update on surgical management in 256 cases. Annals of Surgery. 1986;203(2):219-224 [Pubmed]
  4. Darok M, Reischle S. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer - an unusual case of child abuse. Forensic Science International. 2001;115(1):143-146 [Pubmed]
  5. Frechette A, Rimsza ME. Stun gun injury: a new presentation of the battered child syndrome. Pediatrics. 1992;89(5):898-901 [Pubmed]
  6. Gillespie RW. The battered child syndrome: thermal and caustic manifestations. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 1965;5:523-534 [Pubmed citation only]
  7. Gollogly JG, Vath SB, Malmberg A. Acid attacks in Cambodia: serious reminders of personal conflicts. Asian Biomedicine. 2008;2(4):329-334 [Abstract from IMSEAR]
  8. Grellner W, Metzner G. Kindesmißhandlung durch thermische Gewalt: Abgrenzung und Rekonstruktion [German] [Child abuse caused by thermal violence--determination and reconstruction]. Archiv für Kriminologie. 1995;195(1):38-46 [Pubmed]
  9. Hashimoto I, Nakanishi H, Nagae H, Yamano M, Takeuchi N, Nameda Y, Arase S, Nii M, Taguchi Y, Kuroda Y. Child abuse-related burns: Two cases of severe burns related to child abuse syndrome. Japanese Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1995;38:149-154
  10. Heredea LS. Diagnostic problems of burns produced by physical abuse towards children. Archives of the Balkan Medical Union. 2008;43(3):171-176 [Abstract from Archives of the Balkan Medical Union]
  11. Hicks RA, Stolfi A. Skeletal surveys in children with burns caused by child abuse. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2007;23(5):308-313 [Pubmed]
  12. Hobbs CJ. When are burns not accidental? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1986;61(4):357-361 [Pubmed]
  13. Hobbs CJ, Wynne JM. The sexually abused battered child. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1990;65(4): 423-427 [Pubmed]
  14. Howieson AJ, Harley OJH, Tiernan EP. Laundry detergent and possible nonaccidental injury. European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2007;14(3):163-164 [Pubmed]
  15. Johnson CF. Symbolic scarring and tattooing: unusual manifestations of child abuse. Clinical Pediatrics. 1994;33(1):46-49 [Pubmed citation only]
  16. Johnson CF, Oral R, Gullberg L. Diaper burn: accident, abuse, or neglect. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2000;16(3):173-175 [Pubmed]
  17. Kibayashi K, Shojo H. Patterned injuries in children who have suffered repeated physical abuse. Pediatrics International. 2003;45(2):193-195 [Pubmed citation only]
  18. Kini N, Lazoritz S, Ott C, Conley SF. Caustic instillation into the ear as a form of child abuse. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 1997;15(4):442-443 [Pubmed citation only]
  19. Lapid O. Copper sulphate burns to the hands, a complication of traditional medicine. Journal of Burn Care & Research. 2008;29(3):544-547 [Pubmed]
  20. Lung RJ, Miller SH, Davis TS, Graham WPI. Recognizing burn injuries as child abuse. American Family Physician. 1977;15(4):134-135 [Pubmed citation only]
  21. Mukadam S, Gilles EE. Unusual inflicted hot oil burns in a 7-year-old. Burns. 2003;29(1):83-86 [Pubmed]
  22. Nunez AE, Taff ML. A chemical burn simulating child abuse. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1985;6(2):181-183 [Pubmed citation only]
  23. Ofodile F, Norris J, Garnes A. Burns and child abuse. The East African Medical Journal. 1979;56(1):26-29 [Pubmed citation only]
  24. Petersen HD, Wandall JH. Evidence of physical torture in a series of children. Forensic Science International. 1995;75(1):45-55 [Pubmed]
  25. Prescott PR. Hair dryer burns in children. Pediatrics. 1990;86(5):692-697 [Pubmed]
  26. Ramakrishnan MK, Mathivanan T, Sankar J. Profile of children abused by burning. Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters. 2010;23(1)8-12 [Pubmed]

  27. Seifert D, Krohn J, Larson M, Lambe A, Püschel K, Kurth H. Violence against children: further evidence suggesting a relationship between burns, scalds, and the additional injuries. International Journal of Legal Medicine. 2010;124(1):49-54 [Pubmed]
  28. Shavit I, Knaani-Levinz H. Images in emergency medicine. Annals Of Emergency Medicine. 2008;51(5):579-582. [Article from Science Direct]
  29. Sudikoff S, Young RS. Burn from hairdryer: accident or abuse? Pediatrics. 1994;93(3):540 [Pubmed citation only]
  30. Telmon N, Allery J-P, Dorandeu A, Rougé D. Concentrated bleach burns in a child. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 2002;47(5):1060-1061 [Pubmed]
  31. Winek CL, Wahba WW, Huston RM. Chemical burn from alkaline batteries — a case report. Forensic Science International. 1999;100(1):101-104 [Pubmed]
  32. Zurbuchen P, LeCoultre C, Calza A-M, Halpérin DS. Cutaneous necrosis after contact with calcium chloride: a mistaken diagnosis of child abuse. Pediatrics. 1996;97(2):257-258 [Pubmed citation only]

What conditions mimic intentional burns?

Included papers

 

  1. Asnes RS, Wisotsky DH. Cupping lesions simulating child abuse. The Journal of Pediatrics. 1981;99(2):267-268 [Pubmed citation only]
  2. Botash AS, Sveen AR, Frasier LD. Child abuse—or mimic? Is there a medical explanation? Possible burns in two children. Consultant. 2004;44(2):232-237 [Extract from cancernetwork.com]
  3. Campbell AN, Cooper CE, Dahl MGC. "Non-accidental injury" and wild parsnips. British Medical Journal. 1982;284(6317):708 [Pubmed citation only]
  4. Dannaker CJ, Glover RA, Goltz RW. Phytophotodermatitis: A mystery case report. Clinical Pediatrics. 1988;27(6):289-290 [Pubmed citation only]
  5. Dar NR, Raza N, Rehman SB. Millipede burn at an unusual site mimicking child abuse in an 8-year-old girl. Clinical Pediatrics. 2008;47(5):490-492 [Pubmed citation only]
  6. Denic N, Huyer DW, Sinal SH, Lantz PE, Smith CR, Silver MM. Cockroach: the omnivorous scavenger. Potential misinterpretation of postmortem injuries. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1997;18(2):177-180 [Pubmed]
  7. Diez F, Berger TG. Scarring due to an enuresis blanket. Pediatric Dermatology. 1988;5(1):58-60 [Pubmed]
  8. Feldman KW. Pseudoabusive burns in Asian refugees. American Journal of Dieases of Children. 1984;138(8):768-769 [Pubmed]
  9. Feldman KW. Confusion of innocent pressure injuries with inflicted dry contact burns. Clinical Pediatrics. 1995;34(2):114-115 [Pubmed citation only]
  10. Feldman KW. Pseudoabusive burns in Asian refugees. Child Abuse and Neglect. 1995;19(5):657-658 [Pubmed citation only]
  11. Girardin BW, Stevenson S. Millipedes: health consequences. Journal of Emergency Nursing. 2002;28(2):107-110 [Pubmed citation only]
  12. Grellner W, Metzner G. Kindesmißhandlung durch thermische Gewalt: Abgrenzung und Rekonstruktion [German] [Child abuse caused by thermal violence--determination and reconstruction]. Archiv für Kriminologie. 1995;195(1):38-46 [Pubmed]
  13. Gruson LM, Chang MW. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 2002;156(11):1091-1093 [Pubmed]
  14. Heider TR, Priolo D, Hultman CS, Peck MD, Cairns BA. Eczema mimicking child abuse: a case of mistaken identity. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation. 2002;23(5):357-359 [Pubmed]
  15. Hill P, Pickford M, Parkhouse N. Phytophotodermatitis mimicking child abuse. The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1997;90(10):560-561 [Pubmed]
  16. Ho WS, Ying SY, Wong TW. Bizarre paediatric facial burns. Burns. 2000;26(5):504-506 [Pubmed]
  17. Howieson AJ, Harley OJH, Tiernan EP. Laundry detergent and possible nonaccidental injury. European Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2007;14(3):163-164 [Pubmed]
  18. Inman JK. Cetrimide allergy presenting as suspected non-accidental injury. British Medical Journal. 1982;284(6313):385 [Pubmed citation only]
  19. Leventhal JM, Griffin D, Duncan KO, Starling S, Christian CW, Kutz T. Laxative-induced dermatitis of the buttocks incorrectly suspected to be abusive burns. Pediatrics. 2001;107(1):178-179 [Pubmed citation only]
  20. Levin AV, Selbst SM. Vulvar hemangioma simulating child abuse. Clinical Paediatrics. 1988;27(4):213-215 [Pubmed]
  21. Loh N, Porter W, Webb M. The obvious 'non-accidental injury'. Irish Medical Journal. 2005;98(7):217-218 [Pubmed citation only]
  22. Mehta AJ, Statham BN. Phytophotodermatitis mimicking non-accidental injury or self-harm. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2007;166(7):751-752 [Pubmed citation only]
  23. Mercer DM. Cetrimide burn in an infant. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 1983;59(693):472-473 [Pubmed citation only]
  24. Nields H, Kessler SC, Boisot S, Evans R. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome presenting as suspected child abuse. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 1998;19(1):93-97 [Pubmed]
  25. Oates RK. Overturning the diagnosis of child abuse. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1984;59(7):665-666 [Pubmed]
  26. Porzionato A, Aprile A. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome mimicking child abuse by burning. Forensic Science International. 2007;168(1):e1-e4 [Pubmed]
  27. Sandler AP, Haynes V. Nonaccidental trauma and medical folk belief: a case of cupping. Pediatrics. 1978;61(6):921-922 [Pubmed citation only]
  28. Sinha M, Salness R, Foster KN, Fenn R, Hannasch C. Accidental foot burns in children from contact with naturally heated surfaces during summer months: experience from a regional burn center. Journal of Trauma Injury Infection & Critical Care. 2006;61(4):975-978 [Pubmed]
  29. Spencer JA, Grieve DK. Congenital indifference to pain mistaken for non-accidental injury. The British Journal of Radiology. 1990;63(748):308-310 [Pubmed citation only]
  30. Zhu YI, Fitzpatrick JE, Weston WL. Congenital curvilinear palpable hyperpigmentation. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2005;53(2):S162-S164 [Pubmed]

 

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