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The following is a summary of the systematic review findings up to the date of our most recent literature search. If you have a specific clinical case, we strongly recommend you read all of the relevant references as cited and look for additional material published outside our search dates.


As part of our bruising review, we sought to answer the question: what patterns of bruising suggest physical child abuse?


The following is a summary of systematic review findings up to April 2015. 


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   – Overall results
   – Influence of ethnicity and socio-economic group

Patterns and sites – comparative studies

Patterns and sites – non-abused

Patterns and sites – abused

Implications for practice

Research implications

Limitations of review findings

Other useful references


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