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Included studies

What patterns of bruising suggest physical child abuse?

Included papers


  1. Atwal GS, Rutty GN, Carter N, Green MA. Bruising in non-accidental head injured children; a retrospective study of the prevalence, distribution and pathological associations in 24 cases. Forensic Science International. 1998;96(2):215-230 [Pubmed]
  2. Brinkmann B, Püschel K, Mätzsch T. Forensic dermatological aspects of the battered child syndrome. Aktuelle Dermatologie. 1979;5(6):217-232
  3. Carpenter RF. The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1999;80(4):363-366 [Pubmed]
  4. Chang L-T, Tsai M-C. Craniofacial injuries from slip, trip, and fall accidents of children. Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 2007;63(1):70-74 [Pubmed]
  5. de Silva S, Oates RK. Child homicide - the extreme of child abuse. Medical Journal of Australia. 1993;158(5):300-301 [Pubmed]
  6. Dunstan FD, Guildea ZE, Kontos K, Kemp AM, Sibert JR. A scoring system for bruise patterns: a tool for identifying abuse. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2002;86(5):330-333 [Pubmed]
  7. Ellerstein NS. The cutaneous manifestations of child abuse and neglect. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1979;133(9):906-909 [Pubmed]
  8. Feldman KW. Patterned abusive bruises of the buttocks and the pinnae. Pediatrics. 1992;90(4):633-636 [Pubmed citation only]
  9. Feldman KW. The bruised premobile infant; should you evaluate further? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2009;25(1):37-39 [Pubmed]
  10. Galleno H, Oppenheim WL. The battered child syndrome revisited. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1982;162:11-19 [Pubmed]
  11. Goldberg AP, Tobin J, Daigneau J, Griffith RT, Reinert SE, Jenny C. Bruising frequency and patterns in children with physical disabilities. Pediatrics. 2009;124(2):604-609 [Pubmed]
  12. Harper NS, Feldman KW, Sugar NF, Anderst JD, Lindberg DM. Additional injuries in young infants with concern for abuse and apparently isolated bruises.The Journal of Pediatrics. 2014;165(2):383-388 [Pubmed]

  13. Jappie F. Non accidental injuries in children. Australian Family Physician 1994;23(6):1144-1150 [Pubmed citation only]
  14. Johnson CF, Kaufman KL, Callendar C. The hand as a target organ in child abuse. Clinical Pediatrics. 1990;29(2):66-72 [Pubmed]
  15. Johnson CF, Showers J. Injury variables in child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect. 1985;9(2):207-215 [Pubmed]
  16. Kemp AM, Dunstan F, Nuttall D, Hamilton M, Collins P, Maguire S. Patterns of bruising in preschool children - a longitudinal study. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2015;100(5):426-31 [Pubmed]

  17. Kemp AM, Maguire SA, Nuttall D, Collins P, Dunstan F. Bruising in children who are assessed for suspected physical abuse. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2014;99(2):108-113 [Pubmed]

  18. Labbé J, Caouette G. Recent skin injuries in normal children. Pediatrics. 2001;108(2):271-276 [Pubmed]
  19. Leavitt EB, Pincus RL, Bukachevsky R. Otolaryngologic manifestations of child abuse. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery. 1992;118(6):629-631 [Pubmed]
  20. Lopez MR, Abd-Allah S, Deming DD, Piantini R, Young-Snodgrass A, Perkin R, Barcega B, Sheridan-Matney C. Oral, jaw, and neck injury in infants and children: From abusive trauma or intubation? Pediatric Emergency Care. 2014;30(5):305-310 [Pubmed]

  21. Lynch A. Child abuse in the school-age population. Journal of School Health. 1975;45(3):141-148 [Pubmed citation only]
  22. Lyons TJ, Oates RK. Falling out of bed: a relatively benign occurrence. Pediatrics. 1993;92(1):125-127 [Pubmed]
  23. McMahon P, Grossman W, Gaffney M, Stanitski C. Soft-tissue injury as an indication of child abuse. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American volume). 1995;77-A(8):1179-1183 [Pubmed]
  24. Mortimer PE, Freeman M. Are facial bruises in babies ever accidental? Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1983;58(1):75-76 [Pubmed]
  25. Mosqueda Peña R, Ardura García C, Barrios López M, Casado Picón R, Palacios Cuesta A. Lesiones equimóticas en miembro superior [Spanish]. Ecchymotic injuries in upper extremity. Acta Pediátrica Española. 2008;66(4):198-200
  26. Murty OP, Ming CJ, Ezani MA, Yan PK, Yong TC. Physical injuries in fatal and non-fatal child abuse cases: A review of 16 years with hands on experience of 2 years in Malaysia. International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Legal Medicine. 2006;9(1):33-43
  27. Naidoo S. A profile of the oro-facial injuries in child physical abuse at a children's hospital. Child Abuse and Neglect. 2000;24(4):521-534 [Pubmed]
  28. Nayak K, Spencer N, Shenoy M, Rubithon J, Coad N, Logan S. How useful is the presence of petechiae in distinguishing non-accidental from accidental injury? Child Abuse and Neglect. 2006;30(5):549-555 [Pubmed]
  29. Newman C, Holenweg-Gross C, Vuillerot C, Jeannet P, Roulet-Perez E. Recent skin injuries in children with motor disabilities. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2010;95(5):387-390 [Pubmed]
  30. Patno K, Jenny C. Who slapped that child? Child Maltreatment. 2008;13(3):298-300 [Pubmed]
  31. Peters ML, Starling SP, Barnes-Eley ML, Heisler KW. The presence of bruising associated with fractures. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2008;162(9):877-881 [Pubmed]
  32. Petska HW, Sheets LK, Knox BL. Facial bruising as a precursor to abusive head trauma. Clinical Pediatrics. 2013;52(1):86-8 [Pubmed citation only]

  33. Pierce M, Kaczor K, Aldridge S, O'Flynn J, Lorenz D. Bruising characteristics discriminating physical child abuse from accidental trauma [published erratum appears in Pediatrics 2010;125(4):861]. Pediatrics. 2010;125(1):67-74 [Pubmed]
  34. Pierce M, Smith S, Kaczor K. Bruising in infants: those with a bruise may be abused. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2009;25(12):845-847 [Pubmed]
  35. Schultes A, Lackner K, Rothschild MA. "Scalping": A possible indicator for child abuse [German]. Rechtsmedizin. 2007;17(5):318-320 [Abstract from Springer]
  36. Seifert D, Puschel K. Subgaleal hematoma in child abuse. Forensic Science International. 2006;157(2):131-133 [Pubmed]
  37. Smith SM, Hanson R. 134 battered children: a medical and psychological study. British Medical Journal. 1974;3(5932):666-670 [Pubmed]
  38. Sugar NH, Taylor JA, Feldman KW. Bruises in infants and toddlers; those who don't cruise rarely bruise. Puget Sound Pediatric Research Network. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 1999;153(4):399-403 [Pubmed]
  39. Sussman SJ. Skin manifestations of the battered-child syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics. 1968;72(1):99-101 [Pubmed citation only]
  40. Tush BAR. Bruising in healthy 3-year-old children. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal. 1982;11(23):165-179 [Pubmed citation only]
  41. Wedgwood J. Childhood bruising. The Practitioner. 1990;234(1490):598-601 [Pubmed citation only]
  42. Worlock P, Stower M, Barbor P. Patterns of fractures in accidental and non-accidental injury in children: a comparative study. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition). 1986;293(6539):100-102 [Pubmed]


Can we age a bruise accurately?

Included papers


  1. Bariciak ED, Plint AC, Gaboury I, Bennett S. Dating of bruises in children: An assessment of physician accuracy. Pediatrics. 2003;112(4):804-807 [Pubmed]
  2. Carpenter RF. The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1999;80(4):363-366 [Pubmed]
  3. Stephenson T, Bialas Y. Estimation of the age of bruising. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1996;74(1):53-55 [Pubmed]


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