The objective was to answer the following question:
1. What are the features (clinical +/- radiological, including fractures) of abusive spinal injuries in children? (may be comparative or non-comparative)
This review aims to characterise abusive spinal injury and its associated radiological features. Since both musculoskeletal and spinal cord injuries are included, studies before 2013 were identified and reviewed during our fractures and neurological injury systematic reviews. Therefore, prior to 2013 we have used both the fractures and neurological injury methodology and tools.