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Inclusion criteria

See evidence sheets and critical appraisal forms for each update




Children aged 5-14 completed years (studies included if majority of cases fall within 6 to 12 completed years)

Studies of physical or sexual abuse alone, or studies combining physical or sexual abuse and neglect / emotional abuse, where the data from the neglect/ emotional abuse cases could not be extracted

Documented features of the impact of neglect / emotional abuse on the child during the period of exposure to neglect / emotional abuse

Studies relating to secondary carer, either exclusively or where relevant data relating to primary carer cannot be extracted

Confirmed cases of neglect / emotional abuse (A-C Quality Standards for Confirmation of Neglect / Emotional Abuse)

Studies of management or complications of neglect

Studies conducted in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries

Studies addressing outcomes of neglect


Studies with no data or documentation relating to the impact on the child (emotional, behavioural, psychological, developmental)


Single case studies or case series of fewer than three cases, formal consensus articles, expert opinions, personal practice, review articles, systematic reviews


Neglect / emotional abuse defined by unreferenced criteria / tool, not specified in our standards (D Quality Standards for Confirmation of Neglect / Emotional Abuse)





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