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Inclusion criteria

See evidence sheets and critical appraisal forms section for each year’s update




Articles of all evidence types Personal practice
English and non-English articles Review articles
Patients between 0-17 years of age Studies where the population included adults and children but where we could not extract data that applied solely to children
Oral injury defined as the vermilion border of the lips to the hypopharynx Single case reports of abusive torn frenum or intra-oral injury (from 2008)
Abusive oral injury Methodologically flawed papers
Torn labial frenum of any aetiology     Rank of abuse 4 (only rank 5 pre-2008)
Dental neglect
Oral injury due to sexual abuse or intentional thermal injury
Complications or outcome of abusive oral injury


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